Clinical Rheumatology

, Volume 36, Issue 12, pp 2821–2824 | Cite as

Decreased olfactory bulb volumes in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome

  • Selçuk SayılırEmail author
  • Neşat Çullu
Original Article


Among the other symptoms, impaired olfactory function such as odor identification, threshold, and discrimination have been reported in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). To investigate olfactory bulb (OB) volumes in FMS, by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to make reasonable suggestions are the goals of the present study. The study included 62 individuals as the FMS group (n = 30) and the control group (n = 32). MRI examinations were performed by a 1.5-T scanner and a standard head coil was used for the images. The coronal T2-weighted images were used for to measure OB volumes. Right, left, and total OB volumes were calculated with the aid of these images. The mean age of the FMS group was 44.2 ± 8.3 years and the control group was 41.7 ± 3.53 years. The mean volume of the right OB was 74.9 ± 12.4 mm3 in the FMS group and was 92.6 ± 12.9 mm3 in the control group. The mean value of the left OB volume was 74.3 ± 10.8 mm3 in the FMS group and 92.8 ± 12.6 mm3 in the control group. The mean of the total OB volume was 146.6 ± 20.81 mm3 in the FMS group and 186.5 ± 23.5 mm3 in the control group. Left, right, and total OB volumes were significantly lower in the FMS group than in the control group (all p < 0.05). Female patients with FMS are under the risk of the decreased olfactory bulb volumes. This situation should be kept in mind for proper and reasonable management of this tough syndrome.


Fibromyalgia syndrome Magnetic resonance imaging Olfactory bulb volume 


Compliance with ethical standards






  1. 1.
    Williams DA, Clauw DJ (2009) Understanding fibromyalgia: lessons from the broader pain research community. J Pain 10:777–791CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Koklu K, Sarıgul M, Ozisler Z, Sirzai H, Ozel S (2016) Handgrip strength in fibromyalgia. Arch Rheumatol 31:158–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Branco JC et al (2010) Prevalence of fibromyalgia: a survey in five European countries. Semin Arthritis Rheum 39:448–453CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Yazmalar L et al (2016) High frequency of fibromyalgia in patients with acne vulgaris. Arch Rheumatol 31:170–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Buschhüter D et al (2008) Correlation between olfactory bulb volume and olfactory function. NeuroImage 42:498–502CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Doty RL (2012) Olfaction in Parkinson’s disease and related disorders. Neurobiol Dis 46:527–552CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Moberg PJ et al (2013) Meta-analysis of olfactory function in schizophrenia, first degree family members, and youths at-risk for psychosis. Schizophr Bull 40:50–59CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ortega-Hernandez OD, Kivity S, Shoenfeld Y (2009) Olfaction, psychiatricdisorders and autoimmunity: is there a common geneticassociation. Autoimmunity 42:80–88CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Demarquay G, Ryvlin P, Royet JP (2007) Olfaction and neurological diseases: a review of the literature. Rev Neurol (Paris) 163:155–167CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Strous RD, Shoenfeld Y (2006) To smell the immune system: olfaction, autoimmunity and brain involvement. Autoimmun Rev 6:54–60CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Leon-Sarmiento FE, Bayona EA, Bayona-Prieto J, Osman A, Doty RL (2012) Profound olfactory dysfunction in myasthenia gravis. PLoS One 7:e45544CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shoenfeld Y (2007) To smell autoimmunity: anti-P-ribosomal autoantibodies, depression, and the olfactory system. J Autoimmun 28:165–169CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rombaux P, Duprez T, Hummel T (2009) Olfactory bulb volume in the clinical assessment of olfactory dysfunction. Rhinology 47:3–9PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mueller A et al (2005) Olfactory bulb volumes in patients with idiopathic Parkinson’s disease a pilot study. J Neural Transm 112:1363–1370CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wilbarger JL, Cook DB (2011) Multisensory hypersensitivity in women with fibromyalgia: implications for well being and intervention. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 92:653–656CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Jörn L, Hans-Georg K, Jörg W, Thomas H (2012) Self-ratings of higher olfactory acuity contrast with reduced olfactory test results offibromyalgia patients. Int J Psychophysiol 86:182–186CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Howard A, Nancy AL (2014) Olfactory impairment in patients with thefibromyalgia syndrome and systemic sclerosis. Immunol Res 60:201–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Burgmer M et al (2012) Cerebral mechanisms of experimental hyperalgesia in fibromyalgia. Eur J Pain 16:636–647CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Staud R (2011) Brain imaging in fibromyalgia syndrome. Clin Exp Rheumatol 29:109–117Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schweinhardt P, Sauro KM, Bushnell MC (2008) Fibromyalgia: a disorder of the brain. Neuroscientist 14:415–421CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Lutz J et al (2008) White and gray matter abnormalities in the brain of patients with fibromyalgia: a diffusion-tensor and volumetric imaging study. Arthritis Rheum 58:3960–3969CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kuchinad A, Schweinhardt P, Seminowicz DA, Wood PB, Chizh BA, Bushnell MC (2007) Accelerated brain gray matter loss in fibromyalgia patients: premature aging of the brain. J Neurosci 27:4004–4007CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Burgmer M et al (2009) Decreased gray matter volumes in the cingulo-frontal cortex and the amygdala in patients with fibromyalgia. Psychosom Med 71(5):566–573CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Martines-Marcos A (2009) On the organization of olfactory and vomeronasal cortices. Prog Neurobiol 87(1):21–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Arnold LM et al (2006) Comorbidity of fibromyalgia and psychiatric disorders. J Clin Psychiatry 67(8):1219–1225CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sayılır S (2016) The relationship between symptom severity and cognitive functions of fibromyalgia syndrome with obesity. Turk J Osteoporos 22:129–131Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Negoias S et al (2010) Reduced olfactory bulb volume and olfactory sensitivity in patients with acute major depression. Neuroscience 169(1):415–421CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Drevets WC (1999) Prefrontal cortical-amygdalar metabolism in major depression. Ann N Y Acad Sci 877:614–637CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Drevets WC, Bogers W, Raichle ME (2002) Functional anatomical correlates of antidepressant drug treatment assessed using PET measures of regional glucose metabolism. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 12:527–544CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Wagner G, Koch K, Schachtzabel C, Reichenbach JR, Sauer H, Schlosser RG (2008) Enhanced rostral anterior cingulate cortex activation during cognitive control is related to orbitofrontal volume reduction in unipolar depression. J Psychiatry Neurosci 33:199–208PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Song C, Leonard BE (2005) The olfactory bulbectomised rat as a model of depression. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 29:627–647CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Taylor AG et al (2015) Stress, Inflammation and Pain: A Potential Role for Monocytes in Fibromyalgia-related Symptom Severity. Stress Health. doi: 10.1002/smi.2648
  33. 33.
    Bazzichi L et al (2007) Cytokine patterns in fibromyalgia and their correlation with clinical manifestations. Clin Exp Rheumatol 25:225–230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Selda B et al (2005) Free radicals and antioxidants in primary fibromyalgia: an oxidative stress disorder. Rheumatol Int 25(3):188–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Jill MR, Sarantopoulos CD (2009) Combined use of pregabalin and memantine in fibromyalgia syndrome treatment: a novel analgesic and neuroprotective strategy. Med Hypotheses 73:177–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© International League of Associations for Rheumatology (ILAR) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Medicine, Department of Physical Medicine and RehabilitationMuğla Sıtkı Koçman UniversityMuğlaTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of Medicine, Department of RadiologyMuğla Sıtkı Koçman UniversityMuğlaTurkey

Personalised recommendations