Heart involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus: a systemic review and meta-analysis
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Cardiovascular diseases are one of the most important causes of the disability and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The present study examined the cardiac abnormalities in patients with SLE by echocardiography. Case-control studies were obtained by searching PubMed MEDLINE, Embase, and MD Consult. Systemic review and meta-analysis were performed to assess the cardiac abnormalities based on the changes in the echocardiography in patients with SLE. Twenty-two studies including 1117 SLE patients and 901 healthy controls were enrolled into this study. We found that patients with SLE developed the pericardial effusion (odds ratio (OR) (95 % confidence interval (CI)) 30.52 (9.70–96.02); p < 0.00001) and the combined valvular alterations (OR (95 %CI) 11.08 (6.98–17.59); p < 0.00001). In addition, SLE patients also exhibited an increase in the left atrial diameter (LAD) (WMD—weighted mean difference (95 %CI) 0.18 (0.06–0.29); p = 0.002), the left ventricular internal diameter in diastole (LVDd) (WMD (95 %CI) 0.07 (0.02–0.12); p = 0.01), and the left ventricular mass index (LVMI) (WMD (95 %CI) 5.69 (2.69–8.69); p = 0.0002). In contrast, the left ventricular systolic function (WMD (95 %CI) −1.22 (−1.69 to −0.75); p < 0.00001) and diastolic function including E/A ratio and E/E’ ratio (WMD (95 % CI) −0.13 (−0.24 to −0.01); p = 0.04; WMD (95 % CI) 1.71 (0.43 to 2.99); p = 0.009) were decreased in SLE patients. Patients with SLE are associated with significant alterations in cardiac structure and function as demonstrated by echocardiography. Data from this study suggest that echocardiographic assessment should be considered as a part of routine examinations for SLE patients clinically.
KeywordsCardiac structure and function Echocardiography Systemic lupus erythematosus Systemic review and meta-analysis
We would like to thank Professor Hui Y. Lan for his expert assistance in the manuscript editing. This study is supported by a grant from the Guangdong Natural Science Foundation (S2012010009667).
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