Advertisement

Clinical Rheumatology

, Volume 31, Issue 6, pp 907–911 | Cite as

The relationship between latent trigger points and depression levels in healthy subjects

  • Derya Çelik
  • Ebru Kaya Mutlu
Original Article

Abstract

Our purpose was to study the relationship between latent trigger points (LTrP) and levels of depression in healthy subjects. A total of 76 healthy subjects consisting of 40 men and 36 women (mean age, 25.4 ± 4.8 years; age range, 19–42 years) from the School of Physical Therapy and Rehabilitation and the Orthopaedics and Traumatology Department of Istanbul University Medical Faculty were selected for the study. Latent trigger points on the scapular muscles of each subject were evaluated. The upper and middle trapezius, supraspinatus, serratus anterior, and rhomboideus muscles were examined respectively, by palpation with the thumb, to determine whether there was pain. The first group consisted of 30 subjects (20 men and 10 women; mean age, 24.2 ± 5.02 years) who had previously been diagnosed as negative after an LTrP examination (control group), while the second group consisted of 28 subjects (12 men and 16 women; mean age, 23.6 ± 2.24 years) who had been diagnosed with at least five LTrPs. The third group consisted of 18 subjects (8 men and 10 women; mean age, 26. 9 ± 7.23 years) who had been diagnosed with more than five LTrPs. All groups were assessed, using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). The mean BDI value was found to be 8.0 ± 4.2 in the first group, 10.3 ± 3.4 in the second, and 28.5 ± 4.8 in the third. A significant difference was found between the mean BDI values of the first and second groups and also between the first and third groups. The mean BDI values of the second and third groups were also found to be statistically significant (p = 0.042). We observed a close relationship between the presence of LTrPs and depression levels in healthy people.

Keywords

Depression Latent trigger points Myofascial pain syndrome 

Notes

Disclosures

None.

References

  1. 1.
    Cakit BD, Taskin S, Nacir B, Unlu I, Genc H, Erdem HR (2010) Comorbidity of fibromyalgia and cervical myofascial pain syndrome. Clin Rheumatol 29(4):405–411PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Simons DG (2004) Review of enigmatic MTrPs as a common cause of enigmatic musculoskeletal pain and dysfunction. J Electromyogr Kinesiol 14(1):95–107PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bennett R (2007) Myofascial pain syndromes and their evaluation. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol 21(3):427–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Myburgh C, Larsen AH, Hartvigsen J (2008) A systematic, critical review of manual palpation for identifying myofascial triggers points: evidence and clinical significance. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 89(6):1169–1176PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Travell JG, Simons DG (1999) Myofascial pain and dysfunction: the trigger point manual, 2nd edn. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 207–212Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Sciotti VM, Mittak VL, DiMarco L, Ford LM, Plezbert J et al (2001) Clinical precision of myofascial trigger point location in the trapezius muscle. Pain 93:259–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Shah JP, Phillips TM, Danoff JV, Gerber LH (2005) An in vivo microanalytical technique for measuring the local biochemical milieu of human skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol 99(5):1977–1984PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Simons DG (2005) Myofascial trigger points: new frontiers. J Muscoskeletal Pain 13(4):3–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Hong CZ (2004) Myofascial pain therapy. J Muscoskeletal Pain 12(3):37–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Giannakopoulos NN, Keller L, Rammelsberg P, Kronmüller KT, Schmitter M (2010) Anxiety and depression in patients with chronic temporomandibular pain and in controls. J Dent 38(5):369–376PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tough EA, White AR, Richards S, Campbell J (2007) Variability of criteria used to diagnose myofascial trigger point pain syndrome—evidence from a review of the literature. Clin J Pain 23(3):278–286PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lew PC, Lewis J, Story I (1997) Inter-therapist reliability in locating latentmyofascial trigger points using palpation. Man Ther 2(2):87–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Beck AT, Ward CH, Mendelson M, Mock J, Erbaugh J (1961) An inventory for measuring depression. Arch Gen Psychiatry 4:561–571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Uslu RI, Kapci EG, Oncu B, Ugurlu M, Turkcapar H (2008) Psychometric properties and cut-off scores of the Beck Depression Inventory-II in Turkish adolescents. J Clin Psychol Med Settings 15(3):225–233PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Hong CZ, Simons DG (1998) Pathophysiologic and electrophysiologic mechanisms of myofascial trigger points. Arch Phys Med Rehabil 79:863–872PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bron C, Franssen J, Wensing M, Rob AB (2007) Interrater reliability of palpation of myofascial trigger points in three shoulder muscles. J Man Manip Ther 15:203–215PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fernandez-de-las-Penas C, Alonso-Blanco C, Fernandez-Carnero J, Miangolarra-Page JC (2006) The immediate effect of ischemic compression technique and transverse friction massage on tenderness of active and latent myofascial trigger points: a pilot study. J Bodyw Mov Ther 10:3–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Cimbiz A, Beydemir F, Mainisaligil U (2006) Evaluation of trigger points in young subjects. J Musculoskeletal Pain 14:25–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dommerholt J (2005) Persistent myalgia following whiplash. Curr Pain Headache Rep 9(5):326–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Pagano T, Matsutani LA, Ferreira EA, Marques AP, Pereira CA (2004) Assessment of anxiety and quality of life in fibromyalgia patients. Sao Paulo Med J 122(6):252–258PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Baldry P (2001) Myofascial pain and fibromyalgia syndromes. Churchill Livingstone, LondonGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lucas N, Macaskill P, Irwig L, Moran R, Bogduk N (2009) Reliability of physical examination for diagnosis of myofascial trigger points: a systematic review of the literature. Clin J Pain 25(1):80–89PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gupta A, McBeth J, Macfarlane GJ, Morriss R, Dickens C, Ray D, Chiu YH, Silman AJ (2007) Pressure pain thresholds and tender point counts as predictors of new chronic widespread pain in somatising subjects. Ann Rheum Dis 66:517–521PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Altindag O, Gur A, Altindag A (2008) The relationship between clinical parameters and depression level in patients with myofascial pain syndrome. Pain Med 9(2):161–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Clinical Rheumatology 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Medicine, Department of Orthopedics and TraumatologyIstanbul UniversityFatihTurkey
  2. 2.Faculty of Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy and RehabilitationIstanbul UniversityFatihTurkey

Personalised recommendations