Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a severe disease that can develop in immunocompromised patients. Antitumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) treatment of rheumatoid arthritis can result in clinical benefits, but with an increased risk of opportunistic infections. Leishmania infection in patients treated with TNF-α antagonists is extremely rare; for this reason, we report a patient with VL after etanercept treatment who had an unfavorable outcome.
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