Engineering behaviour of lime- and waste ceramic dust-stabilized expansive soil under continuous leaching

  • Chukwueloka A.U. OkekeEmail author
Original Paper


Numerous distresses in pavement structures on chemically stabilized expansive soils have raised considerable debate regarding the long-term performance of lime-stabilized subgrades. Therefore, this paper examines the effects of continuous leaching on the durability of lime- and waste ceramic dust (WCD)-stabilized expansive subgrades. The tests were performed with different percentages of quicklime (3.5, 4.5, 5 and 10%), while the combined effects of lime and WCD were evaluated by adding 1.5% of WCD to the mixtures containing 3.5 and 4.5% lime. Geotechnical tests such as Atterberg limits, compaction and California bearing ratio (CBR), in addition to microstructural and leachate analyses, were used to evaluate the engineering properties of the stabilized soils. The CBR result shows that early strength development occurred in the soils mixed with lime and WCD. However, at longer curing periods, the beneficial effect of lime on the engineering properties of the soil increased with an increase in lime content. Results of the leaching tests show considerable changes in the physicochemical properties of the soil mixtures, while the estimated service life of the stabilized soils increased from 3.4 to 9.2 years, as lime content increased from 3.5 to 10%. Microstructural analysis results reveal that the flocculated nature of the soil fabric and the density of the fibrous cementitious compounds increased with an increase in lime content. This study clearly indicates that electrical conductivity, pH and pore-water cation concentrations can be used in combination with geotechnical tests, to correctly evaluate the durability of lime- and lime-WCD-stabilized expansive soils.


Expansive soil Pavement deterioration Lime stabilization Leachate analysis Calcium concentration Electrical conductivity 



The author expresses his gratitude to the Covenant University Center for Research, Innovation and Development (CUCRID), for providing an enabling environment conducive for academic research. Three technical staff of the Geotechnical and Environmental Engineering laboratories of Covenant University (Messrs. I. Ojuawo, K.S. Ayegbo and G. Olimaro), are gratefully acknowledged for their involvement in the laboratory analysis. The author thanks the chief editor and two anonymous reviewers for their insightful comments and suggestions on the first draft of this paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringCovenant UniversityOtaNigeria

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