Advertisement

Forecasting high-probability zones of boulder occurrence for TBM tunnel engineering in tropical and subtropical granite regions

  • Zhiyao Tian
  • Quanmei GongEmail author
  • Yu Zhao
  • Shunhua Zhou
  • Honggui Di
Original Paper
  • 42 Downloads

Abstract

In tropical and subtropical granite regions, quantities of boulders were encountered by the tunnel boring machine (TBM) threatening construction safety. The detection of potential boulders in the driving path of a TBM before construction begins in this region has always been a critical issue. However, boulder detection seems to be aimless owing to a lack of recognition of the boulder distribution law. In this study, the process by which boulders form and evolve is analyzed on the basis of the weathering mechanism of the strata. From this, a general law is hypothesized: on the vertical axis, boulder frequency decreases exponentially with increasing of vertical distance from the bedrock. Data from the literature prove the reasonability of this hypothesis. Subsequently, on the basis of this law, a simple approach for forecasting high-probability zones of boulder occurrence in TBM tunnel engineering was proposed, which was then applied to two newly built tunnels. The field data showed that all boulders were spotted in the forecasted high-probability zones, which verifies the effectiveness of this approach. Significant cost-savings will occur when more boreholes or geophysical prospecting are used in the forecasted high-probability zones rather than all over the tunnel line aimlessly.

Keywords

TBM Tunnel engineering Boulder Distribution law High-probability zone 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The study was supported by National Key R&D Program of China (Grant No. 2017YFB1201204) and Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 41472247), and these financial support are greatly appreciated.

References

  1. Abad SVANK, Tugrul A, Gokceoglu C, Armaghani DJ (2016) Characteristics of weathering zones of granitic rocks in Malaysia for geotechnical engineering design. Eng Geol 200:94–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barzegari G, Uromeihy A, Zhao J (2014) EPB tunneling challenges in bouldery ground: a new experience on the Tabriz metro line 1, Iran. Bull Eng Geol Environ 73(2):429–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bilgin N (2016) An appraisal of TBM performances in Turkey in difficult ground conditions and some recommendations. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 57:265–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boone SJ, Estland J, Busbridge JR, Garrod B (1998) Prediction of boulder obstruction. In: Negro F (ed) Proceedings tunnels and metropolises. Balkema, Rotterdam, pp 817–822Google Scholar
  5. Brantley SL, Buss H, Lebedeva M, Fletcher RC, Ma L (2011) Investigating the complex interface where bedrock transforms to regolith. Appl Geochem 26(3):S12–S15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Buss HL, Sak PB, Webb SM, Brantley SL (2008) Weathering of the Rio Blanco quartz diorite, Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico: coupling oxidation, dissolution, and fracturing. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 72(18):4488–4507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cao Q, Xiang W, Wang FH, Guo L, Qin-Ming LI (2013) Statistical analyses of the subsurface occurrence of globular weathered body of granite in Shenzhen. Hydrogeol Eng Geol 40(5):87–90. (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  8. Chen M, Shen SL, Wu HN, Wang ZF, Horpibulsuk S (2017) Geotechnical characteristics of weathered granite gneiss with geo-hazards investigation of pit excavation in Guangzhou, China. Bull Eng Geol Environ 76(2):681–394.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10064-016-0915-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cheng F, Liu J, Wang J, Zong Y, Yu M (2016) Multi-hole seismic modeling in 3-d space and cross-hole seismic tomography analysis for boulder detection. J Appl Geophys 134:246–252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cui QL, Wu HN, Shen SL, Xu YS (2016) Geological difficulties and countermeasures for socket diaphragm walls in weathered granite in Shenzhen, China. Bull Eng Geol Environ 75(1):263–273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Dan MFM, Muhamad ET, Komoo I, Alel A (2015) Physical characteristics of boulders formed in the tropically weathered granite. J Tekn 72(3):75–82Google Scholar
  12. De Brue H, Poesen J, Notebaert B (2015) What was the transport mode of large boulders in the Campine plateau and the lower Meuse valley during the mid-Pleistocene? Geomorphology 228:568–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Dearman WR, Baynes FJ, Irfan TY (1978) Engineering grading of weathered granite. Eng Geol 12(78):345–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Felletti F, Beretta GP (2009) Expectation of boulder frequency when tunneling in glacial till: a statistical approach based on transition probability. Eng Geol 108(1–2):43–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Filbà M, Salvany JM, Jubany J, Carrasco L (2016) Tunnel boring machine collision with an ancient boulder beach during the excavation of the Barcelona city subway l10 line: a case of adverse geology and resulting engineering solutions. Eng Geol 200:31–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Fonseca A, Zeuthen P, Nagy JB, White AF, Blum AE, Schulz MS et al (1996) Chemical weathering rates of a soil chronosequence on granitic alluvium: I. Quantification of mineralogical and surface area changes and calculation of primary silicate reaction rates. Geochim Cosmochim Acta 68(1):2533–2550Google Scholar
  17. Goh ATC, Zhang W, Zhang Y, Xiao Y, Xiang Y (2016) Determination of earth pressure balance tunnel-related maximum surface settlement: a multivariate adaptive regression splines approach. Bull Eng Geol Environ. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10064-016-0937-8Google Scholar
  18. Gong QM, Zhao Y, Zhou JH, Zhou SH (2018) Uplift resistance and progressive failure mechanisms of metro shield tunnel in soft clay. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 82:222–234CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Heimsath AM, Dietrich WE, Nishiizumi K, Finkel RC (1997) The soil production function and landscape equilibrium. Nature 388(6640):358–361Google Scholar
  20. Hong K (2017) Typical underwater tunnels in the mainland of China and related tunneling technologies. Engineering 3(6):871–879CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Jusoh Z, Nawawi MNM, Saad R (2010) Application of geophysical method in engineering and environmental problems. American Institute of Physics Conference Series 1250:181–184Google Scholar
  22. Lehmann EL, Ebrary I (1998) Elements of large sample theory. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  23. Li SC, Liu ZY, Liu B, Xu XJ, Wang CW, Nie LC, Sun HF, Song J, Wang SR (2015) Boulder detection method for metro shield zones based on cross-hole resistivity tomography and its physical model tests. Chin J Geotechn Eng 37(3):446–457 (in Chinese)Google Scholar
  24. Li B, Wu L, Xu C, Zuo Q, Wu S, Zhu B (2016) The detection of the boulders in metro tunneling in granite strata using a shield tunneling method and a new method of coping with boulders. Geotech Geol Eng 34(4):1155–1169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Li S, Liu B, Xu X, Nie L, Liu Z, Song J et al (2017) An overview of ahead geological prospecting in tunneling. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 63:69–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Md Dan MF, Mohamad ET, Komoo I (2016) Characteristics of boulders formed in tropical weathered granite: a review. J Teknol 78:23–30.  https://doi.org/10.11113/jt.v78.9635 Google Scholar
  27. Minasny B, Mcbratney AB (2006) Mechanistic soil–landscape modelling as an approach to developing pedogenetic classifications. Geoderma 133(1–2):149Google Scholar
  28. Minasny B, Mcbratney AB, Salvador-Blanes S (2008) Quantitative models for pedogenesis — a review. Geoderma 144(1):140–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mohammadi SD, Firuzi M, Kaljahi EA (2015) Geological–geotechnical risk in the use of EPB-TBM, case study: Tabriz metro, Iran. Bull Eng Geol Environ 75(4):1–13Google Scholar
  30. Ren DJ, Shen SL, Arulrajah A, Cheng WC (2018) Prediction model of TBM disc cutter wear during tunnelling in heterogeneous ground. Rock Mech Rock Eng 51(11):3599–3611.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-018-1549-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ruxton BP, Berry L (1957) The weathering of granite and associated erosional features in Hong Kong. Geol Soc Am Bull 68(10):1263–1291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Tang W, Quek ST (1986) Statistical model of boulder size and fraction. J Geotech Eng 112(1):79–90CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Tuğrul A, Gürpinar O (1997) A proposed weathering classification for basalts and their engineering properties (Turkey). Bull Eng Geol Environ 55(1):139–149CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. You X, Liu C, Gong Q, Zhou S (2018) A probabilistic design approach for load of metro tunnel induced by surrounding development: part a: determination of development intensity. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 79:52–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zhang N, Shen JS, Zhou AN, Arulrajah A (2018a) Tunneling induced geohazards in mylonite rock faults with rich groundwater: a case study in Guangzhou. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 74:262–272.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tust.2017.12.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Zhang W, Zhang R, Wang W, Hou Z, Goh ATC (2018b) Braced excavation responses in BTG residual soils under significant groundwater drawdowns: DTL2 case study in Singapore.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-0131-5
  37. Zhao Y, Yang H, Chen Z, Chen X, Liu S (2018) Effects of jointed rock mass and mixed ground conditions on the cutting efficiency and cutter wear of tunnel boring machine. Rock Mech Rock Eng. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00603-018-1667-yGoogle Scholar
  38. Zhong Y, Chen J, Min H, Su J, Lu S, Sheng Q, Huang JH (2017) Application of cross-hole sonic computer tomography to detection of spherically weathered granite. Chin J Rock Mech Eng (a01):3440–3344 (in Chinese)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhiyao Tian
    • 1
    • 2
  • Quanmei Gong
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Yu Zhao
    • 1
    • 2
  • Shunhua Zhou
    • 1
    • 2
  • Honggui Di
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Shanghai Key Laboratory of Rail Infrastructure Durability and System SafetyTongji UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Road and Traffic Engineering of the Ministry of EducationTongji UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations