Distinctive controls on the distribution of river-damming and non-damming landslides induced by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake
- 122 Downloads
The 2008 Wenchuan earthquake (China, Mw 7.9) highlighted the importance of assessing and mitigating the hazards from co-seismic landslides and landslide dams. The seismic shaking triggered hundreds of thousands of landslides, about 800 of which dammed the course of rivers. To understand whether distinctive factors concurred with the river-damming events, we analyzed the spatial patterns of the river-damming landslides and the non-damming landslides separately, with reference to a number of possible controlling factors. Then, we quantified the significance of these factors using the weight of evidence method, and we used the results to perform a susceptibility assessment in a portion of the earthquake-affected region to verify the effectiveness of the method. We find that the distance to the fault surface rupture, peak ground acceleration (PGA) and lithology play a controlling role for co-seismic landslides of any type. The occurrence of river-damming landslides, rather than by a specific lithology or topography, is more related to hydrological factors, while topographic controls (slope, internal relief and terrain roughness) are more significant for the non-damming landslides.
KeywordsLandslide Landslide dam Wenchuan earthquake Controlling factors Weight of evidence
This research was financially supported by National Science Fund for Outstanding Young Scholars of China (Grant No. 41622206), the Funds for Creative Research Groups of China (Grant No. 41521002), the Fund for International Cooperation (NSFC-RCUK_NERC), Resilience to Earthquake-induced landslide risk in China (grant No. 41661134010), the AXA Research Fund (ARF), the Fok Ying-Tong Education Foundation for Young Teachers in the Higher Education Institutions of China (151018) and the Fund from Land and Resources Department of Sichuan Province (Grant No. KJ-2015-01).
The authors are grateful to the anonymous reviewers and the editor for their helpful suggestions and editorial assistance.
- Ashford SA, Sitar N (1997) Analysis of topographic amplification of inclined shear waves in a steep coastal bluff. Bull Seismol Soc Am 87(3):692–700Google Scholar
- Blake M, Graymer RW, Stamski R (2002) Geologic map and map database of western Sonoma, northernmost Marin, and southernmost Mendocino Counties, California, US Geological Survey. https://pubs.usgs.gov/mf/2002/2402/
- Bonham-Carter GF (1994) Geographic information systems for geoscientists: modelling with GIS, 1st edn., Elsevier, ISBN: 9781483144948Google Scholar
- Bonham-Carter G, Agterberg F, Wright D (1989) Weights of evidence modelling: a new approach to mapping mineral potential. Statistical Applications in Earth Sciences 89(9):171–183Google Scholar
- Celebi M (1988) Topographic and geological amplifications determined from strong-motion and aftershock records of 3 march 1985 earthquake. Bull Seismol Soc Am 77(4):1147–1167Google Scholar
- Chung CJF, Fabbri CG (1999) Probabilistic prediction models for landslide hazard mapping. Photogramm Eng Remote Sens 65(12):1389–1399Google Scholar
- Chung CJF, Fabbri CG (2005) Systematic procedures of landslide hazard mapping for risk assessment using spatial prediction models. In: Glade T, Anderson M, Crozier MJ (eds) Landslide hazard and risk, ISBN:9780471486633Google Scholar
- Disperati L, Guastaldi E, Carmignani L (2002) Landslide mapping and hazard prediction in the Pergola area (Marche, Italy), Terra Nostra, 04/2002, 8th Annual Conference of the International Association for Mathematical Geology, 507–512, Alfred-Wegener-Stiftung, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- Fan X, Scaringi G, Xu Q, Zhan W, Dai L, Li Y, Pei X, Yang Q, Huang R (2018c) Coseismic landslides triggered by the 8th august 2017 Ms 7.0 Jiuzhaigou earthquake (Sichuan, China): factors controlling their spatial distribution and implications for the seismogenic blind fault identification. Landslides 15(5):967–983CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Froude MJ, Petley DN (2018) Global fatal landslide occurrence 2004 to 2016. Nat Hazards Earth Syst Sci 18:2161–2181Google Scholar
- Jenks GF (1967) The data model concept in statistical mapping. International Yearbook of Cartography 7:186–190Google Scholar
- Ouimet D (2007) Dissecting the eastern margin of the Tibetan Plateau: a study of landslides, erosion and river incision in a transient landscape. Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 197 pGoogle Scholar
- Wilson JP, Gallant JC (2000) Terrain analysis: principles and applications. John Wiley & Sons, HobokenGoogle Scholar