The analysis of dates obtained from long-term creep tests to determine creep coefficients of rock salt

  • Mohammad Bagher Eslami Andargoli
  • Kurosh ShahriarEmail author
  • Ahmad Ramezanzadeh
  • Kamran Goshtasbi
Original Paper


Failure to properly characterize time-dependent behavior (i.e. creep) of rocks and the use of inappropriate behavior models when analyzing stability of underground spaces such as mining drifts and stopes, road tunnels, different types of caverns and reservoirs for storing natural gas, petroleum fluids, and compressed air energy as well as nuclear waste disposal caverns will end up with costly losses. The most important factors affecting creep behavior of rock masses include composition of the minerals composing the rock, size of the grains or crystals of which the rock is composed, humidity, temperature, time, loading scheme, loading rate, strain rate and loading frequency. On this basis, in order to attain a proper understanding of creep behavior of rocks, it is necessary to determine creep coefficients of rocks via in-lab experiments. In the present research, rock salt samples were prepared in the form of cylinders at length-to-diameter ratios of greater than 2. Performed experiments in this study were long-term creep (LTC) tests at 6 stress levels of 5.5, 7.5, 10, 12, 14.02, and 18 MPa and stepwise short-term creep (STC) tests (each at 3 stress levels, namely 4.4, 10.1, and 11.9 MPa, and 7.5, 12, and 17 MPa, respectively). The tests were performed at ambient conditions at a constant temperature of 22 °C and relative humidity of 23%. Then, according to Burger’s rheological model and the Lubby 2 constitutive model and analyzing the obtained information from the tests, Kelvin’s viscoelastic coefficient and shear modulus as well as Maxwell’s elastic and viscoplastic coefficients were calculated. Also, obtained creep coefficients were improved using linear and nonlinear regression analysis of experiment dates.


Rock salt Long-term creep test Lubby 2 constitutive model Burger’s rheological model Creep coefficients 



Experiments were carried out in the rock mechanic laboratory of the School of Mining at the University of Tehran. The authors are grateful for the favor and cooperation of authorities, especially Mr. Ebdali who has helped us in preparation of rock salt specimens.


  1. ASTM D2938 (2002) Standard test method for unconfined compressive strength of intact rock core specimens, current edition approved June 15, 1995. Published July 1995, (Reapproved 2002)Google Scholar
  2. ASTM D3967 (2005) Standard test method for splitting tensile strength of intact rock core specimens, current edition approved Aug. 15, 2005. Published September 2005Google Scholar
  3. ASTM D4405 (1998) Standard test method for creep of cylindrical soft rock core specimens in uniaxial compressions, current edition reapproved 1995Google Scholar
  4. ASTM D4543 (2004) Standard practice for preparing rock core specimens and determining dimensional and shape tolerances, current edition approved July 1, 2004. Published July 2004Google Scholar
  5. Aubertin M, Gill DE, Ladanyi B (1992) Modeling the transient inelastic flow of rock salt. Salt; Proc. 7th Symposium, Netherlands 1992, p 93–104Google Scholar
  6. Aydan O, Tokashiki N, Genis M (2012) Some considerations on yield (failure) criteria in rock mechanics. ARMA 12–640, 46th US Rock Mechanics- Geomechanics Symposium, Chicago, 10p, (on CD)Google Scholar
  7. Aydan O, Ito T, Ozbay U, Kwasniewski MA, Shahriar K, Okuno T, Ozgenoglu A, Malan DF (2014) ISRM Suggested methods for determining the creep characteristics of rock. Hacettepe University, Department of Geological Engineering, 06800 Beytepe, Ankara, TurkeyGoogle Scholar
  8. Bles J, Feuga B (1986) The fracture of rocks. North Oxford Academic Publisher Ltd., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. Fahimifar Ah, Karami M, Fahimifar As (2015) Modifications to an elasto-visco-plastic constitutive model for prediction of creep deformation of rock samples. Soils Found 55(6):1364–1371Google Scholar
  10. Fokker PA (1998) The micro-mechanics of creep in rock salt. The mechanical behavior of salt; Proc. 4th Conference, Clausthal-Zellerfeld 1998, p 49–61Google Scholar
  11. Frank D, Haasen PD (2012) HLW Disposal in salt. The mechanical behavior of salt; Proc. 7th Conference, Paris 2012, (on CD)Google Scholar
  12. Franssen RCM (1998) Mechanical anisotropy of synthetic polycrystalline rock salt. The Mechanical Behavior of Salt; Proc. 4th Conference, Clausthal-Zellerfeld 1998, p 131–141Google Scholar
  13. Fuenkajorn K, Phueakphum D (2009) Effects of cyclic loading on the mechanical properties of Maha Sarakham salt. 2, Thailand. Suranaree J Sci Technol 16:91–102Google Scholar
  14. Goodman RE (1989) Introduction to rock mechanics, 2nd edn. John Wiley & Sons, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Hagros A, Johanson E, Hudson, JA (2008) Time dependency in the mechanical properties of crystalline rocks. A literature survey. Possiva OY, FinlandGoogle Scholar
  16. Hamami M, Tijani SM, Vouille G (1996) A methodology for the identification of rock salt behavior using multi-step creep tests. The Mechanical Behavior of Salt; Proc. 3th Conference, Clausthal-Zellerfeld 1996, p 53–66Google Scholar
  17. Heusermann S, Rolfs O, Schmidt U (2003) Nonlinear finite-element analysis for solution mined storage cavern in rock salt using the LUBBY2 constitutive model. Comput Struct 81:629–638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Houhou N, Benzarti K, Quiertant M, Chataigner S, Fléty A, Marty C (2012) Analysis of the non-linear creep behavior of FRP-concrete bonded assemblies. J Adhes Sci Technol.
  19. Hunsche UE, Albrecht H (1990) Results of true triaxial strength tests on rock salt. Eng Fract Mech 35:867–877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hunsche UE, Schulze O (1996) Effect of humidity and confining pressure on creep of rock salt. The Mechanical Behavior of Salt; Proc. 3th Conference, Clausthal-Zellerfeld 1996, p 237–248Google Scholar
  21. Ishizuka Y, Koyama H, Komura S (1993) Effect of strain rate on strength and frequency dependence of fatigue failure of rocks. Assessment and Prevention of Failure Phenomena in rock Engineering, p 321–327Google Scholar
  22. Ito T, Akagi T (2001) Methods to predict the time of creep failure. Proceedings of the 31st Symposium on Rock Mechanics of Japan, p 77–81Google Scholar
  23. Jeremic ML (1994) Rock mechanics in salt mining. Balkema, Rotherdam, (530 pp.) ISBN-13: 978–9054101031Google Scholar
  24. Karakul H, Ulusay R (2013) Empirical correlations for predicting strength properties of rocks from P-wave velocity under different degrees of saturation. Rock Mech Rock Eng 46:981–999CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Khaledi K, Mahmoudi E, Datcheva M, König D, Schanz T (2016) Sensitivity analysis and parameter identification of a time dependent constitutive model for rock salt. J Comput Appl Math 293:128–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Langer M (1984) The rheological behaviour of rock salt. The mechanical behavior of salt; Proc. the first conference, Clausthal-Zellerfeld 1984, p 201–240Google Scholar
  27. Liang WG, Zhang CA, Gao HG, Yang XQ, Xu SG, Zhao YS (2011) Experiments on mechanical properties of salt rocks under cyclic loading. J Rock Mech Geotech Eng 4(1):54–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ling C, Besson J, Forest S, Tanguy B, Latourte F, Bosso E (2016) An elastoviscoplastic model for porous single crystals at finite strains and its assessment based on unit cell simulations. Int J Plast 84:58–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Liu X, Yang X, Wang J (2015) A nonlinear creep model of rock salt and its numerical implement in FLAC3D. Adv Mater Sci Eng 2015:285158, 8 pages. Google Scholar
  30. Lux KH, Düsterloh U (2014) Experimental acute renal failure. Laboratory Report Larne-Carnduff1, Chair for Waste Disposal Technologies and Geomechanics, Clausthal University of Technology, GermanyGoogle Scholar
  31. Mirza UA (1984) Prediction of creep deformations in rock salt pillars. The mechanical behavior of salt; proc. the first conference, Clausthal-Zellerfeld 1984, p 311–337Google Scholar
  32. Moghadam SN, Mirzabozorg H, Noorzad A (2013) Modeling time-dependent behavior of gas caverns in rock salt considering creep, dilatancy and failure. Tunn Undergr Space Technol 33:171–185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Munson DE, Dawson PR (1984) Salt constitutive Modeling using mechanism maps. The mechanical behavior of salt; Proc. the first conference, Clausthal-Zellerfeld 1984, p 717–737Google Scholar
  34. Munson DE, Wawersik WR (1993) Constitutive modeling of salt behavior-State of the technology. Rock Mechanics; Proc. 7th International Congression, Balkema 1993, p 1797–1810Google Scholar
  35. Pouya A, Zhu C, Arson C (2016) Micro–macro approach of salt viscous fatigue under cyclic loading. Mech Mater 93:13–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Raj SV, Pharr GM (1992) Effect of temperature on the formation of creep substructure in sodium chloride single crystal. Am Ceram Soc 75(2):347–352CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Senseny PE, Handin JW, Hansen FD, Russell JE (1992) Mechanical behavior of rock salt: phenomenology and micro-mechanisms. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 29(4):363–378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Sereshki F, Saffari A (2016) Effects of Ratcheting strain on cyclic time-dependent parameters of salt rocks. Int J Min Sci (IJMS) 2(1):15–24 ISSN 2454-9460 Google Scholar
  39. Sirdesai NN, Mahanta B, Singh TN, Ranjith PG (2016a) Elastic modulus of thermally treated fine grained sandstone using non-contact laser extensometer. Paper presented at the Recent Advances in Rock Engineering (RARE 2016a), Bengaluru, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  40. Sirdesai NN, Singh TN, Ranjith PG, Singh R (2016b) Effect of varied durations of thermal treatment on the tensile strength of red sandstone. Rock Mech Rock Eng 1–9.
  41. Sirdesai NN, Mahanta B, Ranjith PG, Singh TN (2017a) Effects of thermal treatment on physico-morphological properties of Indian fine-grained sandstone. Bull Eng Geol Environ.
  42. Sirdesai NN, Singh TN, Ranjith PG (2017b) Thermal alterations in the poro-mechanical characteristic of an Indian sandstone – a comparative study. Eng Geol 226:208–220. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sriapai T, Walsri C, Fuenkajorn K (2012) Effect of temperature on compressive and tensile strengths of salt. Sci Asia 38(2012):166–174. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Varo L, Passaris EKS (1977) The role of water in the creep properties of halite. Rock engineering; Proc. Conference, University of Newcastle upon Tyne 1977, p 85–100Google Scholar
  45. Wang G, Zhang L, Zhang Y, Ding G (2014) Experimental investigations of the creep–damage–rupture behaviour of rock salt. Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 66(2014):181–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Wawersik WR (1988) Alternatives to a power-law creep model for rock salt at temperatures below 160 °C. The Mechanical Behavior of Salt; Proc. 2th Conference, Clausthal-Zellerfeld 1988, p 103–126Google Scholar
  47. Zhao J, Hou M-Zh, Xing W (2013) Parameter Determination for the Constitutive Model Lubby 2 and Strength Model Hou Based on Laboratory Tests on Rock Salt Samples from Jintan, P.R. China. Proceedings of the 3rd Sino-German Conference, Underground Storage of CO2 and Energy, Goslar, GermanyGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mohammad Bagher Eslami Andargoli
    • 1
  • Kurosh Shahriar
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ahmad Ramezanzadeh
    • 3
  • Kamran Goshtasbi
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Mining Engineering, Science and Research BranchIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Mining and Metallurgy Engineering DepartmentAmirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic)TehranIran
  3. 3.Faculty of Mining, Petroleum and Geophysics EngineeringShahrood University of TechnologyShahroodIran
  4. 4.Department of Mining Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and TechnologyTarbiat Modares UniversityTehranIran

Personalised recommendations