Advertisement

Diamond wire sawing in ornamental basalt quarries: technical, economic and environmental considerations

  • Nicola CaredduEmail author
  • Elisa Stefania Perra
  • Orietta Masala
Original Paper

Abstract

The market interest in ornamental rocks commercially referred to as “stones” has grown significantly in recent years, particularly regarding basalt. This has resulted in the widespread use of diamond wire equipped with sintered diamond beads for precision sawing in basalt quarries, especially those located in the industrialized countries; it also has the advantage of preventing rock damages. Diamond wire has been widely used in up-line cutting and other sawing works in both marble and granite quarries for decades; therefore, performance data about the use of this tool on these two different types of rocks are widely documented in academic literature. However, for basalt sawing, information pertaining to the use of diamond wire is unavailable due to various reasons, but mostly because of to its relatively recent introduction in the basalt quarries and also to the historical low market demand for processed basalt in the past. This study offers a possible solution to this lack of information and provides a technical, economic and environmental assessment of diamond wire used in quarrying basalt for ornamental purposes. After an overview on the state of the art of diamond wire and on the final use of processed basalt, the study describes the experimental plan and the results. These show a tool yield much higher than those measured when diamond wire is used on other silicate dimension stones (e.g. granites). Moreover, the composition of basalt sawdust (sludge) has been analysed in the laboratory and has indicated the absence of polluting materials related to tool wear; therefore, basalt sludge, which is made of water and micronized basalt, can be used as a secondary raw material for the environmental restoration of the area or for any other purpose. Further research on other lithotypes is also proposed.

Keywords

Dimension stone Diamond wire Tool service life Sawdust characterization Secondary raw materials 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors wish to thank Perdas s.a.s Company for allowing us to carry out this study and especially Mr. Alessandro Secchi for his technical support.

References

  1. Agus M, Bortolussi A, Careddu N, Ciccu R, Grosso B, Massacci G (2003) Influence of stone properties on diamond wire performance. In: Proceedings of fourth international conference on computer applications in the minerals industries (CAMI 2003), September 8–10, 2003. Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Singhal/Fytas/Chiwetelu (ed)Google Scholar
  2. ASTM (2000) Standard practice for classification of soils for engineering purposes (Unified Soil Classification System). Designation: D 2487-00Google Scholar
  3. Barrientos V, Delgado J, Navarro V, Juncosa R, Falcón I, Vázquez A (2010) Characterization and geochemical–geotechnical properties of granite sawdust produced by the dimension stone industry of O Porriño (Pontevedra, Spain). Q J Eng Geol Hydrogeol 43:141–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bertolini R, Celsi S (1989) Ipotesi di riutilizzo dei fanghi derivanti dalla lavorazione di materiali lapidei. Atti Convegno su: Situazione e Prospettive dell’Industria Lapidea. Cagliari (Italy), April 1989, pp 384–390 (in Italian) Google Scholar
  5. Biasco G (1993) Diamond wire for quarrying hard rocks. Ind Diamond Rev 53(558):252–255Google Scholar
  6. Blake E (1998) Sardinia’s nuraghi: four millennia of becoming. World Archaeology 30(1):59–71CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Branca FP (1974) Studio del meccanismo di segagione del filo elicoidale. 1° Convegno Internazionale sulla Coltivazione di Pietre e Minerali Litoidi. Torino 4-5-6-Ottobre 1974, vol II, pp 1–31 (in Italian) Google Scholar
  8. Brookes K (2011) Hardmetal meet at World Congress. Met Powder Rep 66(2):10–14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Burragato F, Mecella G, Scandella P (1999) Waste muds from Processing of the siliceous sands from Priverno: potential use for environmental rehabilitation. In: 2nd national congress “Valorisation and recycling of industrial wastes”. L’Aquila, Italy, 5–8 July 1999Google Scholar
  10. Butler-Smith P (1995) The cost effectiveness of diamond wire sawing in quarry. Diamante—Applicazioni and Tecnologia, n. 4—Anno 1995, pp 145–150Google Scholar
  11. Büyüksaǧiş IS (2010) The effects of circular sawblade diamond segment characteristics on marble processing performance. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part C J Mech Eng Sci 224(8):1559–1565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cai O, Mannolini A, Rubino A (1983) Applicazioni e sviluppi del filo diamantato nel taglio primario in cave di marmo e travertino. Marmo Macch 54(1983):122–127Google Scholar
  13. Cai O, Careddu N, Mereu M, Mulas I (2007) The influence of operating parameters on the total productivity of diamond wire in cutting granite. Ind Diam Rev 3(2007):25–30Google Scholar
  14. Caius Plinius Secundis (77 A.D.) Naturalis Historiae, vol X, book 36, section IXGoogle Scholar
  15. Capuzzi Q, Carriero M, Failla S (1975–76) Ricerca coltivazione e utilizzazione dei marmi Apuani—Tecniche di estrazione, Carrara Marmi, n. 2, Marzo 1975, n. 5 Dicembre 1975, n. 7 Giugno 1976, Comune di Carrara, Italy, pp 7–18 (in Italian) Google Scholar
  16. Careddu N (2012) Rough surface finishing of stone-faced sandwich panels using high pressure waterjet. J Mater Civ Eng 24:907–915CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Careddu N, Cai O (2014) Granite sawing by diamond wire: from Madrigali “bicycle” to modern multi-wires. Diamante—Applicazioni and Tecnologia, n. 79, Anno 20, Dicembre 2014, pp 33–50. Ed. G & M Associated Sas, Milan, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  18. Careddu N, Dino GA (2016) Reuse of residual sludge from stone processing: differences and similarities between sludge coming from carbonate and silicate stones—Italian experiences. Environ Earth Sci 75:1075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Careddu N, Marras G, Siotto G (2014) Recovery of sawdust resulting from marble processing plants for future uses in high value added products. J Clean Prod 84(2014):533–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Careddu N, Scanu M, Desogus P (eds) (2015) Map of natural stones from Sardinia. Cagliari, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  21. Careddu N, Siotto G, Marras G (2017) The crisis of granite and the success of marble: errors and market strategies. The Sardinian case. Resour Policy 52(2017):273–276CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Castelli M, Cai O (1989) Safety in the use of diamond wire in quarrying. Marmo Macch, n 85, pp 94–103Google Scholar
  23. Ciccu R, Agus M, Bortolussi A, Massacci G, Careddu N (1998) Diamond wire sawing of hard rocks. In Proceedings of “superabrasive and CVD diamond—theory and application”, Ultrahard Materials Technical Conference, May 28–30, 1998—Windsor, Ontario, Canada. Also printed in: Diamante—Applicazioni e Tecnologia, Dicembre 1998, pp 78–95, and in: Finer Points, vol 11, no. 4 1999, pp 22–30. Skyland, NC, Industrial Diamond Association of America (Pub)Google Scholar
  24. Consorzio 21 (2002) Natural stone from Sardinia. La Poligrafica Solinas s.r.l. (ed) Nuoro/Bolotana, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  25. Curreli L, Ferrara G, Ghiani M, Macchiavelli G, Pala M, Salaris M (1992) Produzione di feldspati per uso ceramico da rocce granitiche. Resoc Ass Min Sarda anno XCV, pp 69–86 (in Italian) Google Scholar
  26. Daniel P (1986) More granites succumb to diamond wire. Ind Diam Rev 5(86):189–194Google Scholar
  27. Frisa Morandini A, Verga G (1990) Problemi connessi con lo smaltimento dei residui di lavorazione delle pietre ornamentali. Bollettino della Associazione Mineraria Subalpina, Anno XXVII, numero 1–2, pp 247–253 (in Italian) Google Scholar
  28. Grillo S, Mocci S, Pia G, Spanu N, Tuveri L (2009) Il manuale tematico della pietra. In: Atzeni C (ed) U Sanna. Itaca, Italy (in Italian). ISBN 978-88-496-6821-6Google Scholar
  29. ILD (2006) Regolamento recante modifiche al decreto ministeriale 5 febbraio 1998 (Italian Legislative Decree no. 186, 05/04/2006. Regulation modifying the Ministerial decree of 5 February 1998). “Individuazione dei rifiuti non pericolosi sottoposti alle procedure semplificate di recupero, ai sensi degli articoli 31 e 33 del decreto legislativo 5 febbraio 1997, n. 22”. G.U. n. 115, 19/05/2006 (in Italian) Google Scholar
  30. ILD (2010) Italian Legislative Decree, 27/09/2010. Criteria Pertaining to Waste Allowed to be Disposed of in Landfill. Definizione dei criteri di ammissibilità dei rifiuti in discarica, in sostituzione di quelli contenuti nel decreto del Ministro dell’ambiente e della tutela del territorio 3 agosto 2005. G.U. n.281, 01/12/2010 (in Italian) Google Scholar
  31. Manca PP, Orrù G, Desogus P (2015) Recycling of sludge from ornamental stone processing as resource in civil constructions. Int J Min Reclam Environ 29(2):141–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Montani C (2016) XXVII Report marble and stones in the world 2016. Ed. Aldus Casa di Edizioni in Carrara, ItalyGoogle Scholar
  33. Özçelik Y (2003) Multivariate statistical analysis of the wear on diamond beads in the cutting of andesitic rocks. Key Engineering Materials, vol 250. Trans Tech PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  34. Pelino M, Cantalini C, Socchera A, Cisi G, Ullu F, Cabiddu P (1998) Aspetti scientifici e tecnologici di un impianto di vetrificazione di rifiuti industriali pericolosi. In: Atti del 4° Congresso Nazionale AIMAT, Chia Laguna (CA); Italy, 8–11/06/1998. AIMAT-PTM ed., pp 570–577 (in Italian) Google Scholar
  35. Pinzari M (1983) Quarrying stone by diamond wire in Italy. Ind Diam Rev 43(498):231–236Google Scholar
  36. Piras M (2000) Il basalto nell’evoluzione geologica del Guilcier. In: Basalto, ISKRA (ed) Ghilarza, Italy, pp 11–26 (in Italian) Google Scholar
  37. Primavori P (1999) 20 years of diamond wire. Marmo Macch Anno 29°, 149, pp 278–304Google Scholar
  38. Rincón JM, Romero M (2010) Frits from natural stone wastes for obtention of composites applied as construction materials. In: Proceedings of global stone congress 2010, 2–5 March 2010, Alicante, Spain. S3-13. AIDICO (Instituto de la Construcción) (ed), València (ISBN: 978-84-614-1147)Google Scholar
  39. Sánchez Delgado N, Rodríguez-Rey A, Suárez del Río LM, Díez Sarriá I, Callejaa L, Ruiz de Argandoña VG (2005) The influence of rock microhardness on the sawability of Pink Porrino granite (Spain). Int J Rock Mech Min Sci 42(2005):161–166CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sassone P, Danasino P (1995) Caratterizzazione di fanghi di segagione di Pietra di Luserna per la valorizzazione come materie prime secondarie. Atti del 2° Incontro Int. Giovani Ricercatori in Geologia Applicata (I.M.Y.R.A.G.), Peveragno (CN), 11–13 ottobre 1995, pp 510–515 (in Italian) Google Scholar
  41. Sivrikaya O, Kıyıldı KR, Karaca Z (2014) Recycling waste from natural stone processing plants to stabilise clayey soil. Environ Earth Sci 71:4397–4407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Thoreau B (1986) Utilisation du cable diamanté pour le sciage du granit en carrière. Le Mausolee Mars 1986:384–386 (in French) Google Scholar
  43. Trancu TC (1980) La “Bicicletta” che taglia grandi blocchi di marmo da 6000 tonnellate. Informazione sui Diamanti, T 45, De Beers Industrial Diamond Division, Milano, Italy (in Italian) Google Scholar
  44. UNESCO (1997) Su Nuraxi di Barumini. In: World Heritage Committee Inscribes 46 New Sites on World Heritage List. http://whc.unesco.org/en/news/180/. Accessed 17 Jan 2017
  45. Wright DN (1991) Progress in the mining and processing of natural stone with diamond tools. Technical paper, SME MR910166Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Environmental, Civil Engineering and Architecture DepartmentUniversity of CagliariCagliariItaly
  2. 2.Environmental Geology and Geoengineering Institute (Section of Cagliari)Consiglio Nazionale delle RicercheCagliariItaly

Personalised recommendations