Seismic, ground motion and geotechnical characteristics of the 2011 Van-Erciş and Van-Edremit earthquakes of Turkey, and assessment of geotechnical damages

Original Paper

Abstract

Two devastating earthquakes with moment magnitudes of 7.2 and 5.6 occurred on October 23, 2011 (Van-Erciş earthquake) and November 9, 2011 (Van-Edremit earthquake), respectively, in the Van Province of the eastern Turkey. The Van-Erciş and Van-Edremit earthquakes caused 604 and 38 fatalities, respectively, and heavy damage to buildings and other structures, particularly in Erciş town and Van City. In this study, characteristics of both main shocks and their geotechnical aspects, such as local site conditions, liquefaction phenomena and associated ground deformations and slope failures are evaluated. The failures of slopes and embankments and rock falls and ground liquefaction may also be indications of diluted ground deformation caused by the earthquake fault. It seems that a wedge-like body bounded by two fault planes was uplifted. As a result of this movement, the northern shoreline of Van Lake uplifted. The November 9, 2011 Van-Edremit earthquake was triggered due to the variation of crustal stresses induced by the October 23, 2011 earthquake. The effects of local site conditions have contributed to the damage of some parts of Erciş city and its vicinity; however, the ground liquefaction was not observed in the city as anticipated. With a magnitude of 5.6, the Van-Edremit earthquake is probably the smallest magnitude earthquake to cause liquefaction in Turkey so far.

Keywords

Van-Erciş earthquake Van-Edremit earthquake Liquefaction Lateral spreading Slope failure Geotechnical damage 

References

  1. AFAD (2011) Republic of Turkey Prime Ministry Disaster and Emergency Management Presidency. http://www.afad.gov.tr/Ingilizce_Site/index.html
  2. Akyüz S, Zabcı C, Sancar T (2011) Preliminary report on the Van earthquake of October 23, 2011. Istanbul Technical University, Department of Geological Engineering, www.itu.edu.tr/DataFiles/Dosya/2011/van_rapor_ITU2.pdf (in Turkish)
  3. Ambraseys NN (1988) Engineering seismology. Earthq Eng Struct Dynam 17:1–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Arpat E, Şaroğlu F, İz HB (1977) 1976 Çaldıran earthquake. Yeryuvarı ve İnsan 2(1):29–41 (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  5. Aydan Ö (2000) New stress inference method based on structural geological features for the stress state of the earth’s crust and its application. Yerbilimleri/Earthsciences 22:223–236 (in Turkish) (www.yerbilimleri.hacettepe.edu.tr)
  6. Aydan Ö (2001) Comparison of suitability of submerged tunnel and shield tunnel for subsea passage of Bosphorus. Jeoloji Mühendisliği 25(1):1–17 (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  7. Aydan Ö (2002) The inference of the earthquake fault and strong motions for Kutch earthquake of January 26, 2001. In: A symposium on the records and lessons from the recent large domestic and overseas earthquakes, JSCE, Earthquake Engineering Committee, Tokyo, pp 135–140Google Scholar
  8. Aydan Ö (2007) The inference of seismic and strong motion characteristics of earthquakes from faults with a particular emphasis on Turkish earthquakes. In: Proceedings of the 6th national earthquake engineering conference of Turkey, İstanbul, pp 563–574Google Scholar
  9. Aydan Ö (2009) Characteristics of large scale rock slope failures in recent worldwide earthquakes. In: Proceedings of earthquake geotechnical engineering satellite conference XVIIth international conference on soil mechanics and geotechnical engineering, Alexandria (on CD)Google Scholar
  10. Aydan Ö (2013) The effects of earthquakes on rock slopes. In: The 47th US rock mechanics/geomechanics symposium, San Francisco, ARMA 13-378, p 10Google Scholar
  11. Aydan Ö, Ohta Y (2011a) A new proposal for strong ground motion estimations with the consideration of earthquake fault. In: 7th National conference on earthquake engineering, İstanbul, Turkey, Paper No. 65 (on CD)Google Scholar
  12. Aydan Ö, Ohta Y (2011b) The erratic pattern screening (EPS) method for estimation of co-seismic deformation of ground from acceleration records and its applications. In: 7th national conference on earthquake engineering, İstanbul, Turkey, Paper No. 66 (on CD)Google Scholar
  13. Aydan Ö, Shimizu Y, Kawamoto T (1991) The dynamic response and stability of rock slopes in discontinuous media. In: Bell DH (ed.) Proceedings of the sixth symposium on landslides. Christchurch, pp 1211–1217Google Scholar
  14. Aydan Ö, Ulusay R, Kumsar H (2000) Liquefaction phenomenon in the earthquakes of Turkey, including recent Erzincan, Dinar and Adana-Ceyhan eartqhuakes. In: Proceedings of the 12th world conference on earthquake engineering, Auckland, 12WCEE-2000, Paper No: 709, p 7 (on CD)Google Scholar
  15. Aydan Ö, Ulusay R, Atak VO (2008) Evaluation of ground deformations induced by the 1999 Kocaeli earthquake (Turkey) at selected sites on shoreline. Environ Geol 54:165–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Aydan Ö, Hamada M, Itoh J, Ohkubo K (2009a) Damage to civil engineering structures with an emphasis on rock slope failures and tunnel damage induced by the 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. J Disaster Res 4(2):153–164Google Scholar
  17. Aydan Ö, Ohta Y, Hamada M (2009b) Geotechnical evaluation of slope and ground failures during the 8 October 2005 Muzaffarabad earthquake in Pakistan. J Seismol 13(3):399–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Aydan Ö, Ulusay R, Kumsar H (2012a) Site investigation and engineering evaluation of the Van earthquakes of October 23 and November 9, 2011. Earthquake Report TDV/DR 015-92, Turkish Earthquake Foundation, Istanbul, 143 p, T: 1–54 (published in March 2012) (in English and Turkish)Google Scholar
  19. Aydan Ö, Kumsar H, Ulusay R, Köse O, Çelebi M (2012b) The characteristics of the triggered 2011 Van-Edremit earthquake and induced damage. In: Proceedings of the international symposium on engineering lessons learned from the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, March 1–4 2012, Tokyo, pp 1914–1925Google Scholar
  20. Aydan Ö, Ulusay R, Hamada M, Beetham D (2012c) Geotechnical aspects of the 2010 Darfield and 2011 Christchurch earthquakes of New Zealand and geotechnical damage to structures and lifelines. Bull Eng Geol Environ 71(4):637–662CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bardet JP, Mace N, Tobita T, Hu J (1999) Large-scale modeling of liquefaction-induced ground deformation Part I: A four parameter MLR model. Technical Report MCEER-92-0021, Multidisciplinary Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, State University of New York, BuffaloGoogle Scholar
  22. Calvi VS (1941) Erdbebenkatalog der Turkei und Einiger Benaehbarter Gebiete. MTA Intitute, Report No. 276, AnkaraGoogle Scholar
  23. Degens ET, Wong HK, Kurtman F, Finkch P (1978) Geological development of Lake Van: A summary. In: Degens ET, Kurtman F (eds) The geology of Van. Mineral Research and Exploration Institute of Turkey (MTA) Publication No. 169, pp 134–146Google Scholar
  24. DSİ (1977) Hydrogeological investigaton of the Van-Erciş plain. Report of the Department of Geotechnique and Groundwater, General Directorate of State Hydraulic Works (DSİ) Ankara (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  25. Earthquake Research Department (ERD) (2011) http://www.deprem.gov.tr/
  26. Emre Ö, Duman TY, Özalp S, Elmacı H (2011) Site observations and preliminary evaluations on the source fault of the Van earthquake of October 23, 2011. Report of the General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA), Ankara (in Turkish) (http://www.mta.gov.tr/v2.0/deprem/2011_Van-Depremi_On-Degerlendirmeler)
  27. Ergin K, Güçlü U, Uz Z (1967) The catalogue of earthquakes of Turkey (MS. 11-1964). İTÜ Maden Fakültesi Arz Fiziği Enstitüsü Yayınları, No 28 (in Turkish and English)Google Scholar
  28. Eyidoğan H, Güçlü U, Utku Z, Değirmenci E (1991) Macro-seismic guide for big Turkish earthquakes. Publication of İstanbul Technical University, İstanbul (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  29. Fukushima Y, Tanaka T, Kataoka S (1988) A new attenuation relationship for peak ground acceleration derived from strong-motion accelerograms. In: Proceedings of 9th world conference on earthquake engineering 2, Tokyo-Kyoto, Japan, pp 343–348Google Scholar
  30. Hamada M, Yashuda S, Isoyama R, Emoto K (1986) Study on liquefaction induced permanent ground displacements. Association for the Devolopment of Earthquake Prediction in Japan, No.1, pp 1–87Google Scholar
  31. İTÜ (2011) October 23 2011 M7.2 Tabanlı-Van earthquake. İTÜ Report of Faculty of Civil engineering. http://www.eedmi.itu.edu.tr/Van_Depremi/index.html
  32. Joyner WB, Boore DM (1981) Peak horizontal acceleration and velocity from strong motion records from the 1979 Imperial Valley California Earthquake. Bull Seismol Soc Am 71(6):2011–2038Google Scholar
  33. Keefer DK (1984) Landslides caused by earthquakes. Geol Soc Am Bull 95(2):406–421Google Scholar
  34. Ketin İ (1977) A short note on the results obtained from geological observations conducted at a region between Van Lake and Iranian border. TJK (Geological Society of Turkey) Bull 20:79–85 (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  35. Kıraner F (1959) Geological investigation of the eastern part of Van Lake. Bulletin of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA), 30–57 (in Turkish) (www.jmo.org.tr/resimler/ekler/4baaff0e2f11b53_ek.pdf?derg)
  36. Koçyiğit A, Deveci Ş, Kaplan M (2011) Report for Van erathquakes (23 October–30 November, 2011). Midddle East Technical University, Department of Geological Engineering, Active Tectonics and Earthquake Research Laboratory, 21 p (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  37. Konagai K, Ulusay R, Kumsar H, Aydan Ö, Çelebi M (2012) The characteristics of seismic, strong motion and structural damage of the 2011 Van-Erciş earthquake. In: Proceedings of the international symposium on engineering lessons learned from the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, March 1–4 2012, Tokyo, Japan, pp 1902–1913Google Scholar
  38. Kuribayashi E, Tatsuoka F (1975) Brief review of soil liquefaction during earthquakes in Japan. Soils Found 15(4):81–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. MTA (2002) Geological maps of Turkey with a scale of 1: 500.000. General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA), Ankara (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  40. Öcal N (1968) Seismicity and earthquake geography of Turkey: Earthquale catalogue of Turkey between 1850 and 1960. Publication of the Kandilli Observatory No.8, İstanbul (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  41. Ohta Y, Aydan Ö (2004) An experimental study on ground motions and permanent deformation nearby earthquake faults. J Sch Marine Sci Technol 2(3):1–12 (in Japanese)Google Scholar
  42. Ohta Y, Aydan Ö (2007) Integration of ground displacement from acceleration records. In: Proceedings of the JSCE earthquake engineering symposium, Tokyo, pp 1046–1051Google Scholar
  43. Özkaymak Ç, (2003) Active tectonic features of Van City and its vicinity. M.Sc. Thesis, Yüzüncü Yıl University, Van (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  44. Özkaymak Ç, Yürür T, Köse O (2004) An example of intercontinental active collisional tectonics in the Eastern Mediterranean region (Van, Eastern Turkey). In: 5th international symposium on eastern mediterranean geology, Thessaloniki, Paper No. T1-44Google Scholar
  45. Özler M (2001) Active saltwater enrichment from Lake Van in the Van aquifer, East Turkey. In: Proceedings of the first conference on saltwater intrusion and coastal aqueifers-monitoring, modeling and management. Essaouira, Morocco (on CD)Google Scholar
  46. Özler M (2008) Hydrogeology of the Van aquifer and intrusion of sodic water from Van Lake. In: Regional meetings of the state hydraulic works (DSİ), Proceedings of the hydrology and pollution of Van Lake, Van, pp 37–54 (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  47. Özvan A, Akkaya İ, Tapan M, Şengül MA (2005) Earthquake hazard of Van City and results of a probable earthquake. In: Proceedings of the earthquake symposium-Kocaeli 2005, Kocaeli, pp 1386–1393 (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  48. Özvan A, Şengül MA, Tapan M (2008) On the geotechnical properties of Neogene sediments of the Van Lake basin in the vicinity of Erciş. Geosound 52:297–310 (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  49. Port and Harbour Research Institute of Japan (1997) Handbook on liquefaction remediation of reclaimed land. Balkema, The NetherlandsGoogle Scholar
  50. Sağlam A (2003) Stratigraphy, paleontology and depsoitional environments of the Van formation cropping out at the east and southwest of Van Lake. M.Sc. Thesis, Yüzüncü Yıl University, Van (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  51. Selçuk L, Çiftçi Y (2007) Microzonation of the Plio-Quaternary soils: a study on the liquefaction risk potential in the Van Lake Basin, Turkey. Bull Eng Geol Environ 66:161–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Şaroğlu F, Yılmaz Y (1986) Geological evolution and basin models in neotectonic period in Anatolia. Bull MTA 107:73–94Google Scholar
  53. Şaroğlu F, Emre Ö, Kuşçu İ (1992) 1:1.000.000 scaled active fault map of Turkey. General Directorate of Mineral Research and Exploration (MTA), Ankara (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  54. Şengör AMC, Kidd WSF (1979) Post-collisional tectonics of the Turkish Iranian Plateau and a comparison with Tibet. Tectonophysics 55:361–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Şengör AMC, Yılmaz Y (1981) Tethyan evolution of Turkey: a plate tectonic approach. Tectonophysics 75:181–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Soysal H, Sipahioğlu S, Kolçak D, Altınok Y (1981) Historical earthquake catalogue of Turkey and its vicinity (2100 bc–1900 ad). TÜBİTAK Report No. TBAG-341, Ankara (both in Turkish and English)Google Scholar
  57. Uluçam A (2000) Tomb stones at the old Erciş-Çelebibağı cemetery. Türk Tarih Kurumu, Ankara, 200 p (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  58. Ulusay R (2000) Preliminary evalaution of the ground conditions at the campus area of Van Yüzüncü Yıl University. Unpublished Report, Van (in Turkish)Google Scholar
  59. Ulusay R, Aydan Ö (2005) Characteristics and geo-engineering aspects of the 2003 Bingöl (Turkey) earthquake. J Geodyn 40:334–346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Ulusay R, Tuncay E, Sönmez H, Gökçeoğlu C (2004) An attenuation relationship based on Turkish strong motion data and iso-acceleration map of Turkey. Eng Geol 74:265–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Ulusay R, Kumsar H, Konagai K, Aydan Ö (2012) The characteristics of the geotechnical damage by the 2011 Van-Erçiş earthquake. In: Proceedings of the international symposium on engineering lessons learned from the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake, March 1–4 2012, Tokyo, Japan, pp 1926–1937Google Scholar
  62. Üner S, Yeşilova Ç, Yakupoğlu T, Üner T (2010) Earthquake induced soft sediment deformation structures (seismites): Van Lake Basin, Eastern Anatolia. Yerbilimleri/Earthsciences 31(1):53–66 (in Turkish) (www.yerbilimleri.hacettepe.edu.tr)Google Scholar
  63. Youd TL, Hansen CM, Bartlett SF (2002) Revised mutilinear regression equations for prediction of lateral spread displacement. J Geotech Geoenviron Eng ASCE 128(12):1007–1017CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Ocean Research and DevelopmentTokai UniversityShizuokaJapan
  2. 2.Department of Geological EngineeringHacettepe UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Geological EngineeringPamukkale UniversityDenizliTurkey
  4. 4.Department of Civil EngineeringUniversity of the RyukyusOkinawaJapan

Personalised recommendations