Molecules and Cells

, Volume 27, Issue 1, pp 1–3 | Cite as

Mechanism, function and regulation of microtubule-dependent microtubule amplification in mitosis

Minireview

Abstract

Mitotic spindle mediates the segregation of chromosomes in the cell cycle and the proper function of the spindle is crucial to the high fidelity of chromosome segregation and to the stability of the genome. Nucleation of microtubules (MTs) from centrosomes and chromatin represents two well-characterized pathways essential for the assembly of a dynamic spindle in mitosis. Recently, we identified a third MT nucleation pathway, in which existing MTs in the spindle act as a template to promote the nucleation and polymerization of MTs, thereby efficiently amplifying MTs in the spindle. We will review here our current understanding on the molecular mechanism, the physiological function and the cell-cycle regulation of MT amplification.

Keywords

Plk1 FAM29A NEDD1 microtubule amplification microtubule nucleation mitotic spindle 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Barr, F.A., Sillje, H.H., and Nigg, E.A. (2004). Polo-like kinases and the orchestration of cell division. Nat. Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 5, 429–440.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Gadde, S., and Heald, R. (2004). Mechanisms and molecules of the mitotic spindle. Curr. Biol. 14, R797–805.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Goshima, G., Mayer, M., Zhang, N., Stuurman, N., and Vale, R.D. (2008). Augmin: a protein complex required for centrosomeindependent microtubule generation within the spindle. J. Cell Biol. 181, 421–429.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Haren, L., Remy, M.H., Bazin, I., Callebaut, I., Wright, M., and Merdes, A. (2006). NEDD1-dependent recruitment of the gamma-tubulin ring complex to the centrosome is necessary for centriole duplication and spindle assembly. J. Cell Biol. 172, 505–515.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Janson, M.E., Setty, T.G., Paoletti, A., and Tran, P.T. (2005). Efficient formation of bipolar microtubule bundles requires microtubule-bound gamma-tubulin complexes. J. Cell Biol. 169, 297–308.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Kirschner, M., and Mitchison, T. (1986). Beyond self-assembly: from microtubules to morphogenesis. Cell 45, 329–342.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Kline-Smith, S.L., and Walczak, C.E. (2004). Mitotic spindle assembly and chromosome segregation: refocusing on microtubule dynamics. Mol. Cell 15, 317–327.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Luders, J., Patel, U.K., and Stearns, T. (2006). GCP-WD is a gamma-tubulin targeting factor required for centrosomal and chromatin-mediated microtubule nucleation. Nat. Cell Biol. 8, 137–147.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Maiato, H., DeLuca, J., Salmon, E.D., and Earnshaw, W.C. (2004). The dynamic kinetochore-microtubule interface. J. Cell Sci. 117, 5461–5477.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. McIntosh, J.R., Grishchuk, E.L., and West, R.R. (2002). Chromosome-microtubule interactions during mitosis. Annu. Rev. Cell Dev. Biol. 18, 193–219.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Murata, T., Sonobe, S., Baskin, T.I., Hyodo, S., Hasezawa, S., Nagata, T., Horio, T., and Hasebe, M. (2005). Microtubuledependent microtubule nucleation based on recruitment of gamma-tubulin in higher plants. Nat. Cell Biol. 7, 961–968.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Petronczki, M., Lenart, P., and Peters, J.M. (2008). Polo on the Rise-from Mitotic Entry to Cytokinesis with Plk1. Dev. Cell 14, 646–659.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Scholey, J.M., Brust-Mascher, I., and Mogilner, A. (2003). Cell division. Nature 422, 746–752.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. van de Weerdt, B.C., and Medema, R.H. (2006). Polo-like kinases: a team in control of the division. Cell Cycle 5, 853–864.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Wiese, C., and Zheng, Y. (2006). Microtubule nucleation: gammatubulin and beyond. J. Cell Sci. 119, 4143–4153.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Zhu, H., Coppinger, J.A., Jang, C.Y., Yates, J.R., 3rd, and Fang, G. (2008). FAM29A promotes microtubule amplification via recruitment of the NEDD1-{gamma}-tubulin complex to the mitotic spindle. J. Cell Biol. 183, 835–848.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Korean Society for Molecular and Cellular Biology and Springer Netherlands 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological SciencesStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  2. 2.Genentech, Inc.South San FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations