Advertisement

Virtual Reality

, Volume 21, Issue 1, pp 31–58 | Cite as

Success factors for serious games to enhance learning: a systematic review

  • Werner Siegfried RavyseEmail author
  • A. Seugnet Blignaut
  • Verona Leendertz
  • Alex Woolner
Original Article

Abstract

There is no doubt that an abundance of factors exists that makes learning with serious games successful. Research articles reporting on these factors, however, tend to focus on select serious game elements and do not combine all salient factors for successful learning with serious games. Addressing this gap is a necessity for the success of serious games and may even alleviate long-standing debates about pedagogy over enjoyment, how much realism is enough or whether artificial intelligence is worth the cost. This article examines existing academic literature from 2000 to 2015, extracting shared serious game success factors that have had an encouraging impact on gameful learning experiences. As such, we subsequently aim to withdraw the field from a perpetual spiral of does-my-game-work research toward more worthwhile why-does-my-game-not-work research. Qualitative content analysis through the constant comparison method (CCM) analyzed a total of 63 articles from a variety of recognized electronic libraries and databases. Through this analysis, we reveal five central serious game themes: backstory and production; realism; artificial intelligence and adaptivity; interaction; and feedback and debriefing, all of which require deliberate intertwining with pedagogical content to ensure successful learning. This review unravels each of the five themes into their constituent factors and consequently presents the factors as practical guidelines that serious games producers should strive to include in their game productions. Applying these recommendations whenever serious games are considered will provide a foundation for effective gameful learning experiences.

Keywords

Artificial intelligence (AI) Feedback Interaction Narrative Realism Serious games 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work is based on research support, in part, by the National Research Foundation of South Africa. Any opinion, findings and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors, and therefore, the NRF does accept any liability in regard thereto. We also wish to acknowledge the effort of the librarians of the North-West University.

Author contributions

All authors contributed to this article, in content and in form. WSR and ASB wrote the manuscript. VL assisted the mechanics of the systematic literature review. AW assisted with inter-reliability and quality assurance. All authors contributed equally to the editing of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest with respect to the authorship and/or publication of this article.

References

  1. Abt CC (1970) Serious games. Viking Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  2. Admiraal W, Huizenga J, Heemskerk I, Kuiper E, Volman M, ten Dam G (2014) Gender-inclusive game-based learning in secondary education Int J Incl Educ 18:1208–1218. doi: 10.1080/13603116.2014.885592 Google Scholar
  3. Akl EA, Sackett K, Pretorius R, Erdley S, Bhoopathi PS, Mustafa R, Schunemann HJ (2008) Educational games for health professionals Cochrane Database Syst Rev:20. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD006411.pub2
  4. Alamri A, Hassan MM, Hossain MA, Al-Qurishi M, Aldukhayyil Y, Hossain MS (2014) Evaluating the impact of a cloud-based serious game on obese people. Comput Hum Behav 30:468–475. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2013.06.021 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Annetta LA, Mangrum J, Holmes S, Collazo K, Cheng M-T (2009a) Bridging realty to virtual reality: investigating gender effect and student engagement on learning through video game play in an elementary school classroom Int J. Sci Educ 31:1091–1113Google Scholar
  6. Annetta LA, Minogue J, Holmes SY, Cheng MT (2009b) Investigating the impact of video games on high school students’ engagement and learning about genetics. Comput Educ 53:74–85. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2008.12.020 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Annetta L, Lamb R, Minogue J, Folta E, Holmes S, Vallett D, Cheng R (2014) Safe science classrooms: teacher training through serious educational games. Inf Sci 264:61–74. doi: 10.1016/j.ins.2013.10.028 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Arnab S et al (2013) The development approach of a pedagogically-driven serious game to support Relationship and Sex Education (RSE) within a classroom setting. Comput Educ 69:15–30. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2013.06.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barab S, Pettyjohn P, Gresalfi M, Volk C, Solomou M (2012) Game-based curriculum and transformational play: designing to meaningfully positioning person, content, and context. Comput Educ 58:518–533. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2011.08.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baranowski T et al (2011) Video game play, child diet, and physical activity behavior change: a randomized clinical trial. Am J Prev Med 40:33–38. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2010.09.029 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bedwell WL, Pavlas D, Heyne K, Lazzara EH, Salas E (2012) Toward a Taxonomy Linking Game Attributes to Learning: An Empirical Study Simulation & Gaming 43:729–760Google Scholar
  12. Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A, Primavera L (2009) Enhancing the educational value of video games. Computers in Entertainment 7:1–18. doi: 10.1145/1541895.1541903 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bellotti F, Berta R, De Gloria A, D’Ursi A, Fiore V (2012) A serious game model for cultural heritage Journal on Computing and Cultural. Heritage 5:1–27Google Scholar
  14. Bhoopathi PS, Sheoran R, Adams CE (2007) Educational games for mental health professionals: a Cochrane review The International Journal Of Psychiatric. Nurs Res 12:1497–1502Google Scholar
  15. Blakely G, Skirton H, Cooper S, Allum P, Nelmes P (2009) Educational gaming in the health sciences: systematic review. J Adv Nurs 65:259–269. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2008.04843.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Boeije H (2002) A purposeful approach to the constant comparative method in the analysis of qualitative interviews. Qual Quant 36:391–409. doi: 10.1023/A:1020909529486 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Boyle E, Connolly TM, Hainey T (2011) The role of psychology in understanding the impact of computer games. Entertainment Computing 2:69–74. doi: 10.1016/j.entcom.2010.12.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Breuer J, Bente G (2010) Why so serious? On the relation of serious games and learning Eludamos Journal for Computer Game Culture 4:7–24Google Scholar
  19. Brom C, Sisler V, Slavik R (2010) Implementing digital game-based learning in schools: augmented learning environment of ‘Europe 2045’. Multimedia Syst 16:23–41. doi: 10.1007/s00530-009-0174-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brom C, Preuss M, Klement D (2011) Are educational computer micro-games engaging and effective for knowledge acquisition at high-schools? A quasi-experimental study Computers & Education 57:1971–1988. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2011.04.007 Google Scholar
  21. Buttussi F, Pellis T, Vidani AC, Pausler D, Carchietti E, Chittaro L (2013) Evaluation of a 3D serious game for advanced life support retraining. Int J Med Inform 82:798–809. doi: 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2013.05.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Byun J, Loh CS (2015) Audial engagement: effects of game sound on learner engagement in digital game-based learning environments. Comput Hum Behav 46:129–138. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2014.12.052 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cheng M-T, Annetta L (2012) Students’ learning outcomes and learning experiences through playing a serious educational game J Biol Educ 46:203–213Google Scholar
  24. Cheng M-T, Su T, Huang W-Y, Chen J-H (2014) An educational game for learning human immunology: what do students learn and how do they perceive? British Journal of Educational Technology 45:820–833CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cheng M-T, Lin Y-W, She H-C (2015) Learning through playing Virtual Age: exploring the interactions among student concept learning, gaming performance, in-game behaviors, and the use of in-game characters. Comput Educ 86:18–29. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2015.03.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chittaro L, Buttussi F (2015) Assessing knowledge retention of an immersive serious game vs. a traditional education method in aviation safety. IEEE Trans Visual Comput Graphics 21:529–538. doi: 10.1109/tvcg.2015.2391853 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chittaro L, Sioni R (2015) Serious games for emergency preparedness: evaluation of an interactive vs. a non-interactive simulation of a terror attack. Comput Hum Behav 50:508–519. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.03.074 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Connolly TM, Stansfield M, Hainey T (2011) An alternate reality game for language learning: aRGuing for multilingual motivation. Comput Educ 57:1389–1415. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2011.01.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Connolly TM, Boyle EA, MacArthur E, Hainey T, Boyle JM (2012) A systematic literature review of empirical evidence on computer games and serious games. Comput Educ 2012:661–686. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2012.03.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Cook DA et al (2013) Comparative effectiveness of instructional design features in simulation-based education: systematic review and meta-analysis. Med Teach 35:e844–e875. doi: 10.3109/0142159X.2012.714886 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Couceiro RM, Papastergiou M, Kordaki M, Veloso AI (2013) Design and evaluation of a computer game for the learning of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) concepts by physical education and sport science students. Education and Information Technologies 18:531–554. doi: 10.1007/s10639-011-9179-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Crookall D (2014) Engaging (in) gameplay and (in) debriefing Simulation & GamingGoogle Scholar
  33. Csikszentmihalyi M (2008) Flow: The psychology of optimal experience, 2nd edn. Harper Perennial, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  34. De Freitas S, Ketelhut DJ (2014) Introduction for the Journal of Information Sciences special issue on serious games. Inf Sci 264:1–3. doi: 10.1016/j.ins.2014.01.036 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. DeSmet A et al (2014) A meta-analysis of serious digital games for healthy lifestyle promotion. Prev Med 69:95–107. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.08.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Dickey MD (2011) Murder on Grimm Isle: the impact of game narrative design in an educational game-based learning environment. British Journal of Educational Technology 42:456–469. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2009.01032.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Dondlinger MJ (2007) Educational video game design: A review of the literature Journal of applied educational technology 4:21–31Google Scholar
  38. Donnelly CM, McDaniel MA (1993) Use of analogy in learning scientific concepts Journal of Experimental Psychology: learning. Memory, and Cognition 19:975–987. doi: 10.1037/0278-7393.19.4.975 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Echeverría A, García-Campo C, Nussbaum M, Gil F, Villalta M, Améstica M, Echeverría S (2011) A framework for the design and integration of collaborative classroom games. Comput Educ 57:1127–1136. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2010.12.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Feinstein AH, Cannon HM (2002) Constructs of simulation evaluation Simulation and Gaming 33:425–440. doi: 10.1177/1046878102238606 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Garris R, Ahlers R, Driskell JE (2002) Games, motivation, and learning: A research and practice model Simulation and Gaming 33:441–467 doi: 10.1177/1046878102238607
  42. Gee JP (2005) Good video games and good learning Phi Kappa Phi Forum:33Google Scholar
  43. Gentner D, Holyoak KJ (1997) Reasoning and learning by analogy: introduction. Am Psychol 52:32–34. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.52.1.32 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Giessen HW (2015) Serious Games Effects: an Overview. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences 2015:2240–2244. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.881 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. González-González C, Blanco-Izquierdo F (2012) Designing social videogames for educational uses. Comput Educ 58:250–262. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2011.08.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. González-González C, Toledo-Delgado P, Collazos-Ordoñez C, González-Sánchez J (2014) Design and analysis of collaborative interactions in social educational videogames. Comput Hum Behav 31:602–611. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2013.06.039 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hainey T (2007) Reviews: games and Simulations in Online Learning: Research and Development Frameworks Int J. Inf Manage 27:438. doi: 10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2007.08.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hämäläinen R (2008) Designing and evaluating collaboration in a virtual game environment for vocational learning. Comput Educ 50:98–109. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2006.04.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hämäläinen R (2011) Using a game environment to foster collaborative learning: a design-based study Technology. Pedagogy and Education 20:61–78. doi: 10.1080/1475939X.2011.554010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hong J-C, Hwang M-Y, Chen Y-J, Lin P-H, Huang Y-T, Cheng H-Y, Lee C-C (2013a) Using the saliency-based model to design a digital archaeological game to motivate players’ intention to visit the digital archives of Taiwan’s natural science museum. Comput Educ 66:74–82. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2013.02.007 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Hong JC, Tsai CM, Ho YJ, Hwang MY, Wu CJ (2013b) A comparative study of the learning effectiveness of a blended and embodied interactive video game for kindergarten students Interact Learn Environ 21:39–53. doi: 10.1080/10494820.2010.542760 Google Scholar
  52. Hong J-C, Lin M-P, Hwang M-Y, Tai K-H, Kuo Y-C (2015) Comparing animated and static modes in educational gameplay on user interest, performance and gameplay anxiety. Comput Educ 88:109–118. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2015.04.018 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Huizenga J, Admiraal W, Akkerman S, ten Dam G (2009) Mobile game-based learning in secondary education: engagement, motivation and learning in a mobile city game. J Comput Assist Learn 25:332–344. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2729.2009.00316.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hunicke R, LeBlanc M, Zubek R (2004) MDA: A formal approach to game design and game research. Paper presented at the AAAI Workshop on Challenges in Game AI, San JoseGoogle Scholar
  55. Hwang G-J, Wu P-H, Chen C-C (2012a) An online game approach for improving students’ learning performance in web-based problem-solving activities. Comput Educ 59:1246–1256. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2012.05.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Hwang GJ, Sung HY, Hung CM, Huang I, Tsai CC (2012b) Development of a personalized educational computer game based on students’ learning styles. Education Tech Research Dev 60:623–638. doi: 10.1007/s11423-012-9241-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Hwang G-J, Yang L-H, Wang S-Y (2013a) A concept map-embedded educational computer game for improving students’ learning performance in natural science courses. Comput Educ 69:121–130. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2013.07.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Hwang GJ, Sung HY, Hung CM, Yang LH, Huang I (2013b) A knowledge engineering approach to developing educational computer games for improving students’ differentiating knowledge. British Journal of Educational Technology 44:183–196. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2012.01285.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Hwang GJ, Chiu LY, Chen CH (2015) A contextual game-based learning approach to improving students’ inquiry-based learning performance in social studies courses. Comput Educ 81:13–25. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2014.09.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Hyungsup Y (2014) A study on an analysis of success factors of a serious game: in case of “Anti-Aging Village” International Journal of Multimedia and Ubiquitious Engineering 9:205–214 doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.14257/ijmue.2014.9.7.17
  61. Johnson CI, Mayer RE (2010) Applying the self-explanation principle to multimedia learning in a computer-based game-like environment. Comput Hum Behav 26:1246–1252. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2010.03.025 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Jonassen DH (1994) Thinking technology: toward a constructivist design model. Educational Technology 34:34–37Google Scholar
  63. Ke F (2008) A case study of computer gaming for math: engaged learning from gameplay? Comput Educ 51:1609–1620. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2008.03.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Ke F, Abras T (2013) Games for engaged learning of middle school children with special learning needs. British Journal of Educational Technology 44:225–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Ke F, Grabowski B (2007) Gameplaying for maths learning: cooperative or not? British Journal of Educational Technology 38:249–259. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2006.00593.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Ketamo H, Kiili K (2010) Conceptual change takes time: Game based learning cannot be only supplementary amusement Journal of Educational Multimedia and Hypermedia 19:399–419Google Scholar
  67. Kickmeier-Rust MD, Albert D (2010) Micro-adaptivity: protecting immersion in didactically adaptive digital educational games. J Comput Assist Learn 26:95–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Kiili K (2005) Content creation challenges and flow experience in educational games: the IT-Emperor case. The Internet and Higher Education 8:183–198. doi: 10.1016/j.iheduc.2005.06.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Kiili K, Perttula PTA (2012) Exerbraining for schools: combining body and brain training. Procedia Computer Science 15:163–173. doi: 10.1016/j.procs.2012.10.068 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Kitchenham B (2007) Guidelines for performing systematic literature reviews in software engineering. Technical report, EBSE Technical Report EBSE-2007-01Google Scholar
  71. Knight JF et al (2010) Serious gaming technology in major incident triage training: a pragmatic controlled trial. Resuscitation 81:1175–1179. doi: 10.1016/j.resuscitation.2010.03.042 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Kriz CW, Hense JU (2006) Theory-oriented evaluation for the design of and research in gaming and simulation Simulation and Gaming 37:268–283. doi: 10.1177/1046878106287950 Google Scholar
  73. Kuk K, Milentijević I, Rančić D, Spalević P (2012) Pedagogical agent in Multimedia Interactive Modules for Learning – MIMLE Expert Syst Appl 39:8051–8058 doi:10.1016/j.eswa.2012.01.138
  74. Mayo JA (2001) Using analogies to teach conceptual applications of developmental theories. Journal of Constructivist Psychology 14:187–213. doi: 10.1080/10720530126292 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. McHugh ML (2012) Interrater reliability: The kappa statistic Biochemia Medica 22:276–282Google Scholar
  76. Mcmahon M, Henderson S (2011) Enhancing nutritional learning outcomes using within a simulation and pervasive game-based strategy. Paper presented at the AACE Edmedia Conference 2011Google Scholar
  77. Michael DR, Chen SL (2006) Serious games: Games that educate, train, and inform. Thomson, BostonGoogle Scholar
  78. Minovic M, Milovanovic M, Starcevic D (2011) Modelling Knowledge and Game Based Learning: Model Driven Approach J Univers Comput Sci 17:1241–1260Google Scholar
  79. Mortara M, Catalano CE, Bellotti F, Fiucci G, Houry-Panchetti M, Petridis P (2014) Learning cultural heritage by serious games. Journal of Cultural Heritage 15:318–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Moseley A, Whitton N, Iacovides I, McAndrew P, Scanlon E, Aczel J (2014) The Gaming Involvement and Informal Learning Framework Simulation & Gaming 45:611–626Google Scholar
  81. Niedenthal S (2009) What we talk about when we talk about game aesthetics. EBSCOhost. http://hdl.handle.net/2043/13326 Accessed June 2, 2015
  82. Norman G, Dore K, Grierson L (2012) The minimal relationship between simulation fidelity and transfer of learning. Med Educ 46:636–647. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2923.2012.04243.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Osterman KF (1998) Using Constructivism and Reflective Practice To Bridge the Theory/Practice Gap. American Educational Research Association, San DiegoGoogle Scholar
  84. Papastergiou M (2009a) Digital game-based learning in high school computer science education: impact on educational effectiveness and student motivation. Comput Educ 52:1–12. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2008.06.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Papastergiou M (2009b) Exploring the potential of computer and video games for health and physical education: a literature review. Comput Educ 53:603–622. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2009.04.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Peters VAM, Vissers GAN (2004) A Simple Classification Model for Debriefing Simulation Games Simulation & Gaming 35:70–84Google Scholar
  87. Petridis P, Dunwell I, De Freitas S, Panzoli D (2010) An engine selection methodology for high fidelity serious games, pp 27–34. doi: 10.1109/VS-GAMES.2010.26
  88. Prensky M (2001) Fun, play and games: what makes games engaging. In: Digital game-based learning. McGraw-Hill, pp 1–31Google Scholar
  89. Riffe D, Lacy S, Fico FG (1998) Analyzing media messages: Using quantitative content analysis in research. LEA’s communications series (general theory). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers, Mahwah, NJ, USGoogle Scholar
  90. Rodriguez DM, Teesson M, Newton NC (2014) A systematic review of computerised serious educational games about alcohol and other drugs for adolescents. Drug Alcohol Rev 33:129–135. doi: 10.1111/dar.12102 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Russell SJ, Norvig P (2014) Artificial intelligence: a modern approach. Pearson Education Limited, Pearson custom library. Harlow (Third edition, Pearson new international edition) zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  92. Sacfung A, Sookhanaphibarn K, Choensawat W (2014) Serious game for fire safety evacuation plan. Adv Mater Res 931–932:583–587. 10.4028/http://www.scientific.net/AMR.931-932.583 doi:
  93. Sadler TD, Romine WL, Menon D, Ferdig RE, Annetta L (2015) Learning biology through innovative curricula: a comparison of game- and nongame-based approaches. Sci Educ 99:696. doi: 10.1002/sce.21171 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Schmitz B, Klemke R, Specht M (2014) The impact of coupled games on the learning experience of learners at-risk: An empirical study Pervasive Mob Comput 14:57–65. doi: 10.1016/j.pmcj.2013.09.002 Google Scholar
  95. Schmitz B, Klemke R, Walhout J, Specht M (2015a) Attuning a mobile simulation game for school children using a design-based research approach. Comput Educ 81:35–48. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2014.09.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Schmitz B, Schuffelen P, Kreijns K, Klemke R, Specht M (2015b) Putting yourself in someone else’s shoes: the impact of a location-based, collaborative role-playing game on behaviour. Comput Educ 85:160–169. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2015.02.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Serrano-Laguna Á, Torrente J, Moreno-Ger P, Fernández-Manjón B (2014) Application of learning analytics in educational videogames. Entertainment Computing 5:313–322. doi: 10.1016/j.entcom.2014.02.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Sherry JL (2013) The Challenge of Audience Reception: A Developmental Model for Educational Game Engagement Digital Games: A Context for Cognitive Developments 139:11–20. doi: 10.1002/cad.20027 Google Scholar
  99. Sitzmann T (2011) A meta-analytic examination of the instructional effectiveness of computer-based simulation games Pers Psychol 64:489–528Google Scholar
  100. Soflano M, Connolly T, Hainey T (2015a) An application of adaptive games-based learning based on learning style to teach SQL. Comput Educ 86:192–211. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2015.03.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Soflano M, Connolly T, Hainey T (2015b) Learning style analysis in adaptive GBL application to teach SQL. Comput Educ 86:105–119. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2015.02.009 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Squire KD (2013) Video game-based learning: an emerging paradigm for instruction. Performance Improvement Quarterly 26:101–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Susi T, Johannesson M, Backlund P (2007) Serious games—An overview. Technical Report No. HS-IKI-TR-07-001, University of Skövde, SkövdeGoogle Scholar
  104. Thompson D, Baranowski T, Buday R, Baranowski J, Thompson V, Jago R, Griffith M (2010) Serious video games for health: How behavioral science guided the development of a serious video game Simulation & Gaming 41:587–606Google Scholar
  105. Torrente J, Moreno-Ger P, Martinez-Ortiz I, Fernandez-Manjon B (2009) Integration and deployment of educational games in e-learning environments: The learning object model meets educational gaming Educ Technol Soc 12:359–371Google Scholar
  106. Torrente J, Del Blanco A, Serrano-Laguna A, Vallejo-Pinto JA, Moreno-Ger P, Fernandez-Manjon B (2014) Towards a low cost adaptation of educational games for people with disabilities Comput Sci. Inf Syst 11:369–391. doi: 10.2298/csis121209013t Google Scholar
  107. Van der Spek ED, Van Oostendorp H, Meyer JJC (2013) Introducing surprising events can stimulate deep learning in a serious game. British Journal of Educational Technology 44:156–169. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8535.2011.01282.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Van Eck R (2006a) Digital Game-Based Learning: It’s Not Just the Digital Natives Who Are Restless EDUCAUSE Review 41:16–18Google Scholar
  109. Van Eck R (2006b) The effect of contextual pedagogical advisement and competition on middle-school students’ attitude toward mathematics and mathematics instruction using a computer-based simulation game. Journal of Computers in Mathematics and Science Teaching 25:165–195Google Scholar
  110. Vandercruysse S, Vandewaetere M, Clarebout G (2012) Game-based learning: a review on the effectiveness of educational games. In: Handbook of Research on Serious Games as Educational, Business and Research Tools. pp 628–647. doi: 10.4018/978-1-4666-0149-9.ch032
  111. Verpoorten D, Castaigne J-L, Westera W, Specht M (2014) A quest for meta-learning gains in a physics serious game. Education and Information Technologies 19:361–374CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Virvou M, Katsionis G (2008) On the usability and likeability of virtual reality games for education: the case of VR-ENGAGE. Comput Educ 50:154–178. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2006.04.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Virvou M, Katsionis G, Manos K (2005) Combining software games with education: Evaluation of its educational effectiveness Educ Technol Soc 8:54–65Google Scholar
  114. Visschedijk GC, Van der Hulst AH (2012) Hoe realistisch moet een serious game zijn? Op zoek naar de optimale fidelity. Homo Ludens Magazine:96–111Google Scholar
  115. Vygotsky LS (1978) Mind in society: the development of higher psychological processesGoogle Scholar
  116. Webster D, Celik O (2014) Systematic review of Kinect applications in elderly care and stroke rehabilitation Journal Of Neuroengineering And. Rehabilitation 11:108. doi: 10.1186/1743-0003-11-108 Google Scholar
  117. Westera W, Nadolski RJ, Hummel HGK, Wopereis IGJH (2008) Serious Games for Higher Education: a Framework for Reducing Design Complexity. J Comput Assist Learn 24:420–432CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Whitton N (2011) Encouraging Engagement in Game-Based Learning International Journal of Game-Based Learning (IJGBL) 1:75–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Whitton N (2013) Games for Learning International Review of Qualitative Research 6:424–439 doi: 10.1525/irqr.2013.6.3.424
  120. Wiemeyer J (2010) Serious Games—The challenges for computer science in sport International Journal of Computer Science in Sport 9:65–74Google Scholar
  121. Wouters P, van Nimwegen C, van Oostendorp H, van der Spek ED (2013) A meta-analysis of the cognitive and motivational effects of serious games. J Educ Psychol 105:249–265. doi: 10.1037/a0031311 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Zin NAM, Yue WS (2013) Design and evaluation of history Digital Game Based Learning (DGBL) software. J Next Gen Inf Technol 4:9–24 doi: 10.4156/jnit.vol4.issue4.2
  123. Zyda M (2005) From visual simulation to virtual reality to games. Computer 38:25–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Werner Siegfried Ravyse
    • 1
    Email author
  • A. Seugnet Blignaut
    • 1
  • Verona Leendertz
    • 1
  • Alex Woolner
    • 2
  1. 1.TELIT-SA, Faculty of Economic Sciences and ITNorth-West UniversityVanderbijlparkSouth Africa
  2. 2.Serious Games InstituteCoventry UniversityCoventryUK

Personalised recommendations