Virtual Reality

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 43–53 | Cite as

Measuring presence with verbal versus pictorial scales: a comparison between online- and ex post-ratings

  • Bartholomäus Wissmath
  • David Weibel
  • Fred W. Mast
Original Article


In this study, we compare subjective online- and post-immersion measures. Although its relevance appears obvious from a theoretical and applied research perspective, this question has not yet been addressed in previous studies. In addition, we also compare verbally and pictorially anchored scales. These factors were measured in different contents using a 2 × 2 × 2 design. We manipulated time of measure (online vs. ex post), type of measure (verbal vs. visual), and content (language vs. language-free). Participants (N = 162) evaluated two video clips in terms of presence. No differences between averaged online- and post-immersion measures were found and online judgments did not interfere with the sensation of presence. In line with findings from other areas of research, the use of pictorially anchored items has major advantages. Our results suggest that those items require less mental workload and assess the sensation of presence more directly than verbally anchored items. We discuss the theoretical implications of our findings.


Presence Online measurement Post-rating Verbal measures Pictorial measures SAM 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bartholomäus Wissmath
    • 1
    • 2
  • David Weibel
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fred W. Mast
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of BernBern 9Switzerland
  2. 2.Swiss Universitary Institute of Distance EducationBrigSwitzerland

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