Virtual Reality

, Volume 13, Issue 2, pp 69–85 | Cite as

Haptics-based virtual reality periodontal training simulator

  • Cristian LucianoEmail author
  • Pat Banerjee
  • Thomas DeFanti
Original Article


This paper focuses upon the research and development of a prototype dental simulator for training of periodontal procedures. By the use of virtual reality and haptics technology, the periodontal simulator allows trainees to learn performing diagnosis and treatment of periodontal diseases by visualizing a three-dimensional virtual human mouth and feeling real tactile sensations while touching the surface of teeth, gingiva, and calculi with virtual dental instruments. Since periodontics requires dentists to depend primarily on tactile sensations to perform diagnostic and surgical procedures, the use of haptics is unquestionably crucial for a realistic periodontal simulator. The haptics-based virtual reality periodontal training simulator has been validated by a experiment conducted by the College of Dentistry at University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) with faculty members and dental students, which demonstrates the scientific contribution and usefulness of the simulator as a vital part of the curriculum of the Department of Periodontics at UIC.


Virtual reality Simulation Training Haptics Dentistry Periodontics 



This work was partially funded by the Fulbright-YPF Fellowship and the Link Foundation Fellowship, a subcontract from NIST ATP Cooperative Agreement 70NANB1H3014, the UIC Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering and the UIC Department of Periodontics. The authors would like to thank Dr. Arnold Steinberg and Dr. Jim Drummond, from the UIC Department of Periodontics, for their technical feedback and thoughts from dental educators’ perspective, and to Dr. Bruce Graham, Dean of the UIC College of Dentistry, for showing so much interest in this project.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cristian Luciano
    • 1
    Email author
  • Pat Banerjee
    • 1
  • Thomas DeFanti
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.University of Illinois at ChicagoChicagoUSA
  2. 2.University of California at San DiegoSan DiegoUSA

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