Virtual Reality

, Volume 11, Issue 1, pp 1–13 | Cite as

Enabling design and interactive selection of haptic modes

  • Karljohan Lundin
  • Matthew Cooper
  • Anders Persson
  • Daniel Evestedt
  • Anders Ynnerman
Original Article


The ever increasing size and complexity of volumetric data in a wide range of disciplines makes it useful to augment volume visualization tools with alternative modalities. Studies have shown that introducing haptics can significantly increase both exploration speed and precision. It is also capable of conveying material properties of data and thus has great potential to improve user performance in volume data exploration. In this paper we describe how recent advances in volume haptics can be used to build haptic modes—building blocks for haptic schemes. These modes have been used as base components of a toolkit allowing for more efficient development of haptic prototypes and applications. This toolkit allows interactive construction, configuration and fine-tuning of both visual and haptic representations of the data. The technology is also used in a pilot study to determine the most important issues and aspects in haptic volume data interaction and exploration, and how the use of haptic modes can facilitate the implementation of effective haptic schemes.


Volume haptics Haptic modes Toolkit User study 



Lars Wigström at the Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV) at Linköping University and Mattias Sillén at Saab AB are gratefully acknowledged for providing high quality datasets. The staff at CMIV are also gratefully acknowledged for participation in the pilot study and Lena Tibell at the department of biomedicine and surgery for help with the study.


  1. Adams RJ, Klowden D, Hannaford B (2001) Virtual training for manual assembly task. Haptics-e. Electron J Haptics Res (, 2(2), October 2001
  2. Avila RS, Sobierajski LM (1996) A haptic interaction method for volume visualization. In: Proceedings at IEEE visualization, October 1996, pp 197–204Google Scholar
  3. Aviles W, Ranta J (1999) Haptic interaction with geoscientific data. In: Proceedings at phantom user group workshop’99, 1999Google Scholar
  4. Donald BR, Henle F (2000) Using haptics vector fields for animation motion control. In: Proceedings of IEEE international conference on robotics and automationGoogle Scholar
  5. Fyrenius A, Wigström L, Ebbers T, Karlsson M, Engvall J, Bolger AF (2001) Three dimensional flow in the human left atrium. Heart 86:448–455CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hashimoto W, Iwata H (1997) A versatile software platform for visual/haptic environment. In: Proceedings of ICAT'97, pp 106–114Google Scholar
  7. Ikits M, Brederson JD, Hansen CD, Johnson CR (2003) A constraint-based technique for haptic volume exploration. In: Proceedings of IEEE visualization ’03, pp 263–269Google Scholar
  8. Infed F, Brown SV, Lee CD, Lawrence DA, Dougherty AM, Pao LY (1999) Combined visual/haptic rendering modes for scientific visualization. In: Proceedings of 8th annual symposium on haptic interfaces for virtual environment and teleoperator systemsGoogle Scholar
  9. Iwata H, Noma H (1993) Volume haptization. In: Proceedings of IEEE 1993 symposium on research frontiers in virtual reality, pp 16–23Google Scholar
  10. Kirkpatrick AE, Douglas SA (2002) Application-based evaluation of haptic interfaces. In: Proceedings of the 10th symposium on haptic interfaces for virtual environments and teleoperator systemsGoogle Scholar
  11. Lawrence DA, Lee CD, Pao LY, Novoselov RY (2000) Shock and vortex visualization using a combined visual/haptic interface. In: Proceedings of IEEE conference on visualization and computer graphicsGoogle Scholar
  12. Lundin K, Ynnerman A, Gudmundsson B (2002) Proxy-based haptic feedback from volumetric density data. In: Proceedings of eurohaptics. University of Edinburgh, United Kingdom, pp 104–109Google Scholar
  13. Lundin K, Sillen M, Cooper M, Ynnerman A (2005a) Haptic visualization of computational fluid dynamics data using reactive forces. In: Proceedings of conference on visualization and data analysis, part of IS&T/SPIE symposium on Electronic imaging 2005, San Jose, January 2005, pp 31–41Google Scholar
  14. Lundin K, Cooper M, Ynnerman A (2005b) The orthogonal constraints problem with the constraint approach to proxy-based volume haptics and a solution. In: Proceedings of SIGRAD conference, Lund, Sweden, November 2005. SIGRAD, pp 45–49Google Scholar
  15. Lundin K, Gudmundsson B, Ynnerman A (2005c) General proxy-based haptics for volume visualization. In: Proceedings of the world haptics conference, Pisa, March 2005. IEEE, pp 557–560Google Scholar
  16. Maciejewski R, Choi S, Ebert D, Tan H (2005) Multi-modal perceptualization of volumetric data and its application to molecular docking. In: Proceedings of the world haptics conference, Pisa, March 2005. IEEE, pp 511–514Google Scholar
  17. Mor A, Gibson S, Samosky J (1996) Interacting with 3-dimensional medical data: haptic feedback for surgical simulation. In: Proceedings of phantom user group workshop’96, 1996Google Scholar
  18. Pao L, Lawrence D (1998) Synergistic visual/haptic computer interfaces. In: Proceedings of Japan/USA/Vietnam workshop on research and education in systems, computation, and control engineeringGoogle Scholar
  19. Passmore PJ, Nielsen CF, Cosh WJ, Darzi A (2001) Effects of viewing and orientation on path following in a medical teleoperation environment. In: Proceedings of IEEE virtual reality 2001Google Scholar
  20. Wall S, Harwin W (2000) Quantification of the effects of haptic feedback during a motor skills task in a simulated environment. In: Proceedings at phantom user research symposium’00, 2000Google Scholar
  21. Wall SA, Paynter K, Shillito AM, Wright M, Scali S (2002) The effect of haptic feedback and stereo graphics in a 3D target acquisition task. In: Proceedings of eurohaptics. University of Edinburgh, United KingdomGoogle Scholar
  22. Wigström L, Sjöqvist L, Wranne B (1996) Temporally resolved 3D phase-contrast imaging. Magn Reson Med 36(5):800–803 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Wigström L, Ebbers T, Fyrenius A, Karlsson M, Engvall J, Wranne B, Bolger AF (1999) Particle trace visualization of intracardiac flow using time-resolved 3D phase contrast mri. Magn Reson Med 41:793–799CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karljohan Lundin
    • 1
  • Matthew Cooper
    • 1
  • Anders Persson
    • 2
  • Daniel Evestedt
    • 3
  • Anders Ynnerman
    • 1
  1. 1.Norrköping Visualization and Interaction StudioLinköping UniversityLinköpingSweden
  2. 2.Center for Medical Image Science and VisualizationLinköping UniversityLinköpingSweden
  3. 3.SenseGraphics ABStockholmSweden

Personalised recommendations