Virtual Reality

, Volume 8, Issue 4, pp 231–241 | Cite as

A two visual systems approach to understanding voice and gestural interaction

  • Barry A. Po
  • Brian D. Fisher
  • Kellogg S. BoothEmail author


It is important to consider the physiological and behavioral mechanisms that allow users to physically interact with virtual environments. Inspired by a neuroanatomical model of perception and action known as the two visual systems hypothesis, we conducted a study with two controlled experiments to compare four different kinds of spatial interaction: (1) voice-based input, (2) pointing with a visual cursor, (3) pointing without a visual cursor, and (4) pointing with a time-lagged visual cursor. Consistent with the two visual systems hypothesis, we found that voice-based input and pointing with a cursor were less robust to a display illusion known as the induced Roelofs effect than pointing without a cursor or even pointing with a lagged cursor. The implications of these findings are discussed, with an emphasis on how the two visual systems model can be used to understand the basis for voice and gestural interactions that support spatial target selection in large screen and immersive environments.


Two visual systems Pointing Cursors Visual feedback Voice input Visual illusions 



Virtual reality


Human–computer interaction


Analysis of variance


Computer-aided design



This research was funded by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Barry A. Po
    • 1
  • Brian D. Fisher
    • 1
  • Kellogg S. Booth
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

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