Quantum derivation of the excess noise factor in lasers with non-orthogonal eigenmodes
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By generalizing recently obtained results we calculate the excess noise factor (Petermann factor) for a laser system with non-orthogonal eigenmodes. The quantum consistency of the calculation is shown through the explicit conservation of input-output commutation rules. As a result of the calculation, the excess noise in the lasing mode is shown to depend on the laser gain below threshold, and on the noise analysis frequency below and above threshold.
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