A deterministic sandpile automaton revisited
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The Bak-Tang-Wiesenfeld (BTW) sandpile model is a cellular automaton which has been intensively studied during the last years as a paradigm for self-organized criticality. In this paper, we reconsider a deterministic version of the BTW model introduced by Wiesenfeld, Theiler and McNamara, where sand grains are added always to one fixed site on the square lattice. Using the Abelian sandpile formalism we discuss the static properties of the system. We present numerical evidence that the deterministic model is only in the BTW universality class if the initial conditions and the geometric form of the boundaries do not respect the full symmetry of the square lattice.
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