Notfall + Rettungsmedizin

, Volume 9, Issue 1, pp 123–154 | Cite as

Kreislaufstillstand unter besonderen Umständen

Abschnitt 7 der Leitlinien zur Reanimation 2005 des European Resuscitation Council
  • J. Soar
  • C. D. Deakin
  • J. P. Nolan
  • G. Abbas
  • A. Alfonzo
  • A. J. Handley
  • D. Lockey
  • G. D. Perkins
  • K. Thies
  • B. W. Böttiger
  • B. Dirks
  • V. Dörges
  • H. Domanovits
  • H. Gervais
Schwerpunkt: ERC-Leitlinien



Es besteht kein Interessenkonflikt. Der korrespondierende Autor versichert, dass keine Verbindungen mit einer Firma, deren Produkt in dem Artikel genannt ist, oder einer Firma, die ein Konkurrenzprodukt vertreibt, bestehen. Die Präsentation des Themas ist unabhängig und die Darstellung der Inhalte produktneutral.


  1. 1.
    Guidelines 2000 for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care (2000) International Consensus on Science. Part 8: Advanced challenges in resuscitation. Section 1: Life-threatening electrolyte abnormalities. Circulation 102: 217–I22Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Niemann JT, Cairns CB (1999) Hyperkalemia and ionized hypocalcemia during cardiac arrest and resuscitation: possible culprits for postcountershock arrhythmias? Ann Emerg Med 34: 1–7CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ahmed J, Weisberg LS (2001) Hyperkalemia in dialysis patients. Semin Dial 14: 348–356CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Mahoney B, Smith W, Lo D, Tsoi K, Tonelli M, Clase C (2005) Emergency interventions for hyperkalaemia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD003235Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ngugi NN, McLigeyo SO, Kayima JK (1997) Treatment of hyperkalaemia by altering the transcellular gradient in patients with renal failure: effect of various therapeutic approaches. East Afr Med J 74: 503–509PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Allon M, Shanklin N (1996) Effect of bicarbonate administration on plasma potassium in dialysis patients: interactions with insulin and albuterol. Am J Kidney Dis 28: 508–514PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Rastegar A, Soleimani M (2001) Hypokalaemia and hyperkalaemia. Postgrad Med J 77: 759–764CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Cohn JN, Kowey PR, Whelton PK, Prisant LM (2000) New guidelines for potassium replacement in clinical practice: a contemporary review by the National Council on Potassium in Clinical Practice. Arch Intern 160: 2429–2436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Litovitz TL, Felberg L, White S, Klein-Schwartz W (1996) 1995 annual report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System. Am J Emerg Med 14: 487–537CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    McCaig LF, Burt CW (1999) Poisoning-related visits to emergency departments in the United States, 1993–1996. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 37: 817–826CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Fingerhut LA, Cox CS (1998) Poisoning mortality, 1985–1995. Public Health Rep 113: 218–233PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Watson WA, Litovitz TL, Klein-Schwartz W et al. (2004) 2003 annual report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System. Am J Emerg Med 22: 335–404CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Zimmerman JL (2003) Poisonings and overdoses in the intensive care unit: General and specific management issues. Crit Care Med 31: 2794–2801CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Suntres ZE (2002) Role of antioxidants in paraquat toxicity. Toxicology 180: 65–77CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    American Academy of Clinical Toxicology (1993) Facility assessment guidelines for regional toxicology treatment centers. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 31: 211–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    American College of Emergency Physicians (1996) Poison information and treatment systems. Ann Emerg Med 28: 384Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chyka PA, Seger D, Krenzelok EP, Vale JA (2005) Position paper: Single-dose activated charcoal. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 43: 61–87Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Vale JA, Kulig K (2004) Position paper: gastric lavage. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42: 933–943CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Krenzelok EP (2005) Ipecac syrup-induced emesis no evidence of benefit. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 43: 11–12Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Position paper (2004) Cathartics. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42: 243–253CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Position paper (2004) Whole bowel irrigation. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42: 843–854CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Proudfoot AT, Krenzelok EP, Vale JA (2004) Position Paper on urine alkalinization. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 42: 1–26CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Golper TA, Bennett WM (1988) Drug removal by continuous arteriovenous haemofiltration. A review of the evidence in poisoned patients. Med Toxicol Adverse Drug Exp 3: 341–349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Pitetti RD, Singh S, Pierce MC (2003) Safe and efficacious use of procedural sedation and analgesia by nonanesthesiologists in a pediatric emergency department. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 157: 1090–1096CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Osterwalder JJ (1996) Naloxone — for intoxications with intravenous heroin and heroin mixtures–harmless or hazardous? A prospective clinical study. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 34: 409–416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Sporer KA, Firestone J, Isaacs SM (1996) Out-of-hospital treatment of opioid overdoses in an urban setting. Acad Emerg Med 3: 660–667PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Wanger K, Brough L, Macmillan I, Goulding J, MacPhail I, Christenson JM (1998) Intravenous vs subcutaneous naloxone for out-of-hospital management of presumed opioid overdose. Acad Emerg Med 5: 293–299PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hasan RA, Benko AS, Nolan BM, Campe J, Duff J, Zureikat GY (2003) Cardiorespiratory effects of naloxone in children. Ann Pharmacother 37: 1587–1592CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sporer KA (1999) Acute heroin overdose. Ann Intern Med 130: 584–590PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Schneir AB, Vadeboncoeur TF, Offerman SR et al. (2002) Massive OxyContin ingestion refractory to naloxone therapy. Ann Emerg Med 40: 425–428CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kelly AM, Kerr D, Dietze P, Patrick I, Walker T, Koutsogiannis Z (2005) Randomised trial of intranasal versus intramuscular naloxone in prehospital treatment for suspected opioid overdose. Med J Aust 182: 24–27PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Brown TC (1976) Sodium bicarbonate treatment for tricyclic antidepressant arrhythmias in children. Med J Aust 2: 380–382PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hoffman JR, Votey SR, Bayer M, Silver L (1993) Effect of hypertonic sodium bicarbonate in the treatment of moderate-to-severe cyclic antidepressant overdose. Am J Emerg Med 11: 336–341CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Knudsen K, Abrahamsson J (1997) Epinephrine and sodium bicarbonate independently and additively increase survival in experimental amitriptyline poisoning. Crit Care Med 25: 669–674CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Nattel S, Mittleman M (1984) Treatment of ventricular tachyarrhythmias resulting from amitriptyline toxicity in dogs. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 231: 430–435PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Nattel S, Keable H, Sasyniuk BI (1984) Experimental amitriptyline intoxication: electrophysiologic manifestations and management. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol 6: 83–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Pentel P, Benowitz N (1984) Efficacy and mechanism of action of sodium bicarbonate in the treatment of desipramine toxicity in rats. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 230: 12–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Brown TC, Barker GA, Dunlop ME, Loughnan PM (1973) The use of sodium bicarbonate in the treatment of tricyclic antidepressant-induced arrhythmias. Anaesth Intensive Care 1: 203–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Brown TC (1976) Tricyclic antidepressant overdosage: experimental studies on the management of circulatory complications. Clin Toxicol 9: 255–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Hedges JR, Baker PB, Tasset JJ, Otten EJ, Dalsey WC, Syverud SA (1985) Bicarbonate therapy for the cardiovascular toxicity of amitriptyline in an animal model. J Emerg Med 3: 253–260CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Sasyniuk BI, Jhamandas V, Valois M (1986) Experimental amitriptyline intoxication: treatment of cardiac toxicity with sodium bicarbonate. Ann Emerg Med 15: 1052–1059CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Stone CK, Kraemer CM, Carroll R, Low R (1995) Does a sodium-free buffer affect QRS width in experimental amitriptyline overdose? Ann Emerg Med 26: 58–64CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    McCabe JL, Cobaugh DJ, Menegazzi JJ, Fata J (1998) Experimental tricyclic antidepressant toxicity: a randomized, controlled comparison of hypertonic saline solution, sodium bicarbonate, and hyperventilation. Ann Emerg Med 32: 329–333CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Sasyniuk BI, Jhamandas V (1984) Mechanism of reversal of toxic effects of amitriptyline on cardiac Purkinje fibers by sodium bicarbonate. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 231: 387–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sasyniuk BI, Jhamandas V (1986) Frequency-dependent effects of amitriptyline on Vmax in canine purkinje fibers and its alteration by alkalosis. Proceedings of the Western Pharmacology Society 29: 73–75Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Bou-Abboud E, Nattel S (1998) Molecular mechanisms of the reversal of imipramine-induced sodium channel blockade by alkalinization in human cardiac myocytes. Cardiovasc Res 38: 395–404CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Levitt MA, Sullivan JB Jr, Owens SM, Burnham L, Finley PR (1986) Amitriptyline plasma protein binding: effect of plasma pH and relevance to clinical overdose. Am J Emerg Med 4: 121–125CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    McKinney PE, Rasmussen R (2003) Reversal of severe tricyclic antidepressant-induced cardiotoxicity with intravenous hypertonic saline solution. Ann Emerg Med 42: 20–24CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Brogan WCI, Lange RA, Kim AS, Moliterno DJ, Hillis LD (1991) Alleviation of cocaine-induced coronary vasoconstriction by nitroglycerin. J Am Coll Cardiol 18: 581–586PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lange RA, Cigarroa RG, Yancy CW Jr et al. (1989) Cocaine-induced coronary-artery vasoconstriction. N Engl J Med 321: 1557–1562PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Lange RA, Cigarroa RG, Flores ED et al. (1990) Potentiation of cocaine-induced coronary vasoconstriction by beta-adrenergic blockade. Ann Intern Med 112: 897–903PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Boehrer JD, Moliterno DJ, Willard JE, Hillis LD, Lange RA (1993) Influence of labetalol on cocaine-induced coronary vasoconstriction in humans. Am J Med 94: 608–610CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bosse GM, Pope TM (1994) Recurrent digoxin overdose and treatment with digoxin-specific Fab antibody fragments. J Emerg Med 12: 179–185CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Eddleston M, Rajapakse S, Rajakanthan et al. (2000) Anti-digoxin Fab fragments in cardiotoxicity induced by ingestion of yellow oleander: a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 355: 967–972CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Dasgupta A, Szelei-Stevens KA (2004) Neutralization of free digoxin-like immunoreactive components of oriental medicines Dan Shen and Lu-Shen-Wan by the Fab fragment of antidigoxin antibody (Digibind). Am J Clin Pathol 121: 276–281CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Bailey B (2003) Glucagon in beta-blocker and calcium channel blocker overdoses: a systematic review. J Toxicol Clin Toxicol 41: 595–602CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Dewitt CR, Waksman JC (2004) Pharmacology, Pathophysiology and Management of Calcium Channel Blocker and beta-Blocker Toxicity. Toxicol Rev 23: 223–238CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Wax PM, Erdman AR, Chyka PA et al. (2005) Beta-blocker ingestion: an evidence-based consensus guideline for out-of-hospital management. Clin Toxicol (Phila) 43: 131–146Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Peden MM, McGee K (2003) The epidemiology of drowning worldwide. Inj Control Saf Promot 10: 195–199CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Driscoll TR, Harrison JA, Steenkamp M (2004) Review of the role of alcohol in drowning associated with recreational aquatic activity. Inj Prev 10: 107–113CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Papa L, Hoelle R, Idris A (2005) Systematic review of definitions for drowning incidents. Resuscitation 65: 255–264CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Idris AH, Berg RA, Bierens J et al. (2003) Recommended guidelines for uniform reporting of data from drowning: The „Utstein style“. Resuscitation 59: 45–57CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Watson RS, Cummings P, Quan L, Bratton S, Weiss NS (2001) Cervical spine injuries among submersion victims. J Trauma 51: 658–662PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Dodd FM, Simon E, McKeown D, Patrick MR (1995) The effect of a cervical collar on the tidal volume of anaesthetised adult patients. Anaesthesia 50: 961–963PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (2005) International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science with Treatment Recommendations. Resuscitation 67Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Golden FS, Hervey GR, Tipton MJ (1991) Circum-rescue collapse: collapse, sometimes fatal, associated with rescue of immersion victims. J R Nav Med Serv 77: 139–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Goh SH, Low BY (1999) Drowning and near-drowning — some lessons learnt. Ann Acad Med Singapore 28: 183–188PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Quan L, Wentz KR, Gore EJ, Copass MK (1990) Outcome and predictors of outcome in pediatric submersion victims receiving prehospital care in King County, Washington. Pediatrics 86: 586–593PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Szpilman D, Soares M (2004) In-water resuscitation — is it worthwhile? Resuscitation 63: 25–31CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Perkins GD (2005) In-water resuscitation: a pilot evaluation. Resuscitation 65: 321–324CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Rosen P, Stoto M, Harley J (1995) The use of the Heimlich maneuver in near-drowning: Institute of Medicine report. J Emerg Med 13: 397–405CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    March NF, Matthews RC (1980) New techniques in external cardiac compressions. Aquatic cardiopulmonary resuscitation. JAMA 244: 1229–1232CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    March NF, Matthews RC (1980) Feasibility study of CPR in the water. Undersea Biomed Res 7: 141–148PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Thomas R, Cahill CJ (2000) Successful defibrillation in profound hypothermia (core body temperature 25.6 degrees C). Resuscitation 47: 317–320CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Manolios N, Mackie I (1988) Drowning and near-drowning on Australian beaches patrolled by life-savers: a 10-year study, 1973–1983. Med J Aust 148: 165–171Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Modell JH, Calderwood HW, Ruiz BC, Downs JB, Chapman R Jr (1974) Effects of ventilatory patterns on arterial oxygenation after near-drowning in sea water. Anesthesiology 40: 376–384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Golden FS, Tipton MJ, Scott RC (1997) Immersion, near-drowning and drowning. Br J Anaesth 79: 214–225PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Wyatt JP, Tomlinson GS, Busuttil A (1999) Resuscitation of drowning victims in south-east Scotland. Resuscitation 41: 101–104CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Schmidt U, Fritz KW, Kasperczyk W, Tscherne H (1995) Successful resuscitation of a child with severe hypothermia after cardiac arrest of 88 minutes. Prehospital Disaster Med 10: 60–62PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Bolte RG, Black PG, Bowers RS, Thorne JK, Corneli HM (1988) The use of extracorporeal rewarming in a child submerged for 66 minutes. JAMA 260: 377–379CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    The Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network (2000) Ventilation with lower tidal volumes as compared with traditional tidal volumes for acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. N Engl J Med 342: 1301–1308CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Moran I, Zavala E, Fernandez R, Blanch L, Mancebo J (2003) Recruitment manoeuvres in acute lung injury/acute respiratory distress syndrome. Eur Respir J 42 [Suppl]: 37–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Nolan JP, Morley PT, Vanden Hoek TL, Hickey RW (2003) Therapeutic hypothermia after cardiac arrest. An advisory statement by the Advancement Life support Task Force of the International Liaison committee on Resuscitation. Resuscitation 57: 231–235CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Holzer M, Behringer W, Schorkhuber W et al. (1997) Mild hypothermia and outcome after CPR. Hypothermia for Cardiac Arrest (HACA) Study Group. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand [Suppl] 111: 55–58PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Sterz F, Safar P, Tisherman S, Radovsky A, Kuboyama K, Oku K (1991) Mild hypothermic cardiopulmonary resuscitation improves outcome after prolonged cardiac arrest in dogs. Crit Care Med 19: 379–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Farstad M, Andersen KS, Koller ME, Grong K, Segadal L, Husby P (2001) Rewarming from accidental hypothermia by extracorporeal circulation. A retrospective study. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 20: 58–64CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Schneider SM (1992) Hypothermia: from recognition to rewarming. Emerg Med Rep 13: 1–20Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gilbert M, Busund R, Skagseth A, Nilsen PÅ, Solbø JP (2000) Resuscitation from accidental hypothermia of 13.7ºC with circulatory arrest. Lancet 355: 375–376CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Danzl DF, Pozos RS, Auerbach PS et al. (1987) Multicenter hypothermia survey. Ann Emerg Med 16: 1042–1055CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Reuler JB (1978) Hypothermia: pathophysiology, clinical settings, and management. Ann Intern Med 89: 519–527PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Lefrant JY, Muller L, de La Coussaye JE et al. (2003) Temperature measurement in intensive care patients: comparison of urinary bladder, oesophageal, rectal, axillary, and inguinal methods versus pulmonary artery core method. Intensive Care Med 29: 414–418PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Robinson J, Charlton J, Seal R, Spady D, Joffres MR (1998) Oesophageal, rectal, axillary, tympanic and pulmonary artery temperatures during cardiac surgery. Can J Anaesth 45: 317–323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Krismer AC, Lindner KH, Kornberger R et al. (2000) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation during severe hypothermia in pigs: does epinephrine or vasopressin increase coronary perfusion pressure? Anesth Analg 90: 69–73CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Kornberger E, Lindner KH, Mayr VD et al. (2001) Effects of epinephrine in a pig model of hypothermic cardiac arrest and closed-chest cardiopulmonary resuscitation combined with active rewarming. Resuscitation 50: 301–308CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Stoner J, Martin G, O’Mara K, Ehlers J, Tomlanovich M (2003) Amiodarone and bretylium in the treatment of hypothermic ventricular fibrillation in a canine model. Acad Emerg Med 10: 187–191CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Mattu A, Brady WJ, Perron AD (2002) Electrocardiographic manifestations of hypothermia. Am J Emerg Med 20: 314–326CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Southwick FS, Dalglish PH Jr (1980) Recovery after prolonged asystolic cardiac arrest in profound hypothermia: a case report and literature review. JAMA 243: 1250–1253CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Ujhelyi MR, Sims JJ, Dubin SA, Vender J, Miller AW (2001) Defibrillation energy requirements and electrical heterogeneity during total body hypothermia. Crit Care Med 29: 1006–1011CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Kornberger E, Schwarz B, Lindner KH, Mair P (1999) Forced air surface rewarming in patients with severe accidental hypothermia. Resuscitation 41: 105–111CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Roggla M, Frossard M, Wagner A, Holzer M, Bur A, Roggla G (2002) Severe accidental hypothermia with or without hemodynamic instability: rewarming without the use of extracorporeal circulation. Wien Klin Wochenschr 114: 315–320PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Weinberg AD, Hamlet MP, Paturas JL, White RD, McAninch GW (1990) Cold Weather Emergencies: Principles of Patient Management. American Medical Publishing Co., Branford, CNGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Zell SC, Kurtz KJ (1985) Severe exposure hypothermia: a resuscitation protocol. Ann Emerg Med 114: 339–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Althaus U, Aeberhard P, Schupbach P, Nachbur BH, Muhlemann W (1982) Management of profound accidental hypothermia with cardiorespiratory arrest. Ann Surg 195: 492–495PubMedGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Walpoth BH, Walpoth-Aslan BN, Mattle HP et al. (1997) Outcome of survivors of accidental deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest treated with extracorporeal blood warming. N Engl J Med 337: 1500–1505CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Silfvast T, Pettila V (2003) Outcome from severe accidental hypothermia in Southern Finland--a 10-year review. Resuscitation 59: 285–290CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Moss J (1986) Accidental severe hypothermia. Surg Gynecol Obstet 162: 501–513PubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Safar P (1993) Cerebral resuscitation after cardiac arrest: research initiatives and future directions. Ann Emerg Med 22: 324–349CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Bouchama A, Knochel JP (2002) Heat stroke. N Engl J Med 346: 1978–1988CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Wappler F (2001) Malignant hyperthermia. Eur J Anaesthesiol 18: 632–652CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Ali SZ, Taguchi A, Rosenberg H (2003) Malignant hyperthermia. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 17: 519–533CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Bouchama A (2004) The 2003 European heat wave. Intensive Care Med 30: 1–3CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Coris EE, Ramirez AM, Van Durme DJ (2004) Heat illness in athletes: the dangerous combination of heat, humidity and exercise. Sports Med 34: 9–16CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Grogan H, Hopkins PM (2002) Heat stroke: implications for critical care and anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 88: 700–707CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Bouchama A, De Vol EB (2001) Acid-base alterations in heatstroke. Intensive Care Med 27: 680–685CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Akhtar MJ, al-Nozha M, al-Harthi S, Nouh MS (1993) Electrocardiographic abnormalities in patients with heat stroke. Chest 104: 411–414PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    el-Kassimi FA, Al-Mashhadani S, Abdullah AK, Akhtar J (1986) Adult respiratory distress syndrome and disseminated intravascular coagulation complicating heat stroke. Chest 90: 571–574PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Waruiru C, Appleton R (2004) Febrile seizures: an update. Arch Dis Child 89: 751–756CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Berger J, Hart J, Millis M, Baker AL (2000) Fulminant hepatic failure from heat stroke requiring liver transplantation. J Clin Gastroenterol 30: 429–431CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Huerta-Alardin AL, Varon J, Marik PE (2005) Bench-to-bedside review: Rhabdomyolysis — an overview for clinicians. Crit Care 9: 158–169CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Wolff ED, Driessen OMJ (1977) Theophylline intoxication in a child. Ned Tijdschr Geneeskd 121: 896–901PubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Sidor K, Mikolajczyk W, Horwath-Stolarczyk A (2002) Acute poisoning in children hospitalized at the Medical University Hospital No 3 in Warsaw, between 1996 and 2000. Pediatria Polska 77: 509–516Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Boyer EW, Shannon M (2005) The serotonin syndrome. N Engl J Med 352: 1112–1120CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Bhanushali MJ, Tuite PJ (2004) The evaluation and management of patients with neuroleptic malignant syndrome. Neurol Clin 22: 389–411CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Abraham E, Matthay MA, Dinarello CA et al. (2000) Consensus conference definitions for sepsis, septic shock, acute lung injury, and acute respiratory distress syndrome: time for a reevaluation. Crit Care Med 28: 232–235CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Savage MW, Mah PM, Weetman AP, Newell-Price J (2004) Endocrine emergencies. Postgrad Med J 80: 506–515CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Hadad E, Weinbroum AA, Ben-Abraham R (2003) Drug-induced hyperthermia and muscle rigidity: a practical approach. Eur J Emerg Med 10: 149–154CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Halloran LL, Bernard DW (2004) Management of drug-induced hyperthermia. Curr Opin Pediatr 16: 211–215CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Armstrong LE, Crago AE, Adams R, Roberts WO, Maresh CM (1996) Whole-body cooling of hyperthermic runners: comparison of two field therapies. Am J Emerg Med 14: 355–358CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Horowitz BZ (1989) The golden hour in heat stroke: use of iced peritoneal lavage. Am J Emerg Med 7: 616–619CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Bernard S, Buist M, Monteiro O, Smith K (2003) Induced hypothermia using large volume, ice-cold intravenous fluid in comatose survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest: a preliminary report. Resuscitation 56: 9–13CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Schmutzhard E, Engelhardt K, Beer R et al. (2002) Safety and efficacy of a novel intravascular cooling device to control body temperature in neurologic intensive care patients: a prospective pilot study. Crit Care Med 30: 2481–2488CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Al-Senani FM, Graffagnino C, Grotta JC et al. (2004) A prospective, multicenter pilot study to evaluate the feasibility and safety of using the CoolGard System and Icy catheter following cardiac arrest. Resuscitation 62: 143–150CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Behringer W, Safar P, Wu X et al. (2002) Veno-venous extracorporeal blood shunt cooling to induce mild hypothermia in dog experiments and review of cooling methods. Resuscitation 54: 89–98CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Hadad E, Cohen-Sivan Y, Heled Y, Epstein Y (2005) Clinical review: Treatment of heat stroke: should dantrolene be considered? Crit Care 9: 86–91CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Krause T, Gerbershagen MU, Fiege M, Weisshorn R, Wappler F (2004) Dantrolene — a review of its pharmacology, therapeutic use and new developments. Anaesthesia 59: 364–373CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Eshel G, Safar P, Sassano J, Stezoski W (1990) Hyperthermia-induced cardiac arrest in dogs and monkeys. Resuscitation 20: 129–143CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Eshel G, Safar P, Radovsky A, Stezoski SW (1997) Hyperthermia-induced cardiac arrest in monkeys: limited efficacy of standard CPR. Aviat Space Environ Med 68: 415–420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Zeiner A, Holzer M, Sterz F et al. (2001) Hyperthermia after cardiac arrest is associated with an unfavorable neurologic outcome. Arch Intern Med 161: 2007–2012CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Masoli M, Fabian D, Holt S, Beasley R (2004) The global burden of asthma: executive summary of the GINA Dissemination Committee report. Allergy 59: 469–478CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    British Thoracic Society, Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN) (2003) British guideline on the management of asthma. Thorax 58 [Suppl I]: 1–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Rainbow J, Browne GJ (2002) Fatal asthma or anaphylaxis? Emerg Med J 19: 415–417CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Kokturk N, Demir N, Kervan F, Dinc E, Koybasioglu A, Turktas H (2004) A subglottic mass mimicking near-fatal asthma: a challenge of diagnosis. J Emerg Med 26: 57–60CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Ratto D, Alfaro C, Sipsey J, Glovsky MM, Sharma OP (1988) Are intravenous corticosteroids required in status asthmaticus? JAMA 260: 527–529CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Aaron SD (2001) The use of ipratropium bromide for the management of acute asthma exacerbation in adults and children: a systematic review. J Asthma 38: 521–530CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Rodrigo G, Rodrigo C, Burschtin O (1999) A meta-analysis of the effects of ipratropium bromide in adults with acute asthma. Am J Med 107: 363–370CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Munro A, Jacobs M (2004) Best evidence topic reports. Is intravenous aminophylline better than intravenous salbutamol in the treatment of moderate to severe asthma? Emerg Med J 21: 78–80PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Rowe BH, Bretzlaff JA, Bourdon C, Bota GW, Camargo CA Jr (2000) Magnesium sulfate for treating exacerbations of acute asthma in the emergency department. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD001490Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Cydulka R, Davison R, Grammer L, Parker M, Mathews J IV (1988) The use of epinephrine in the treatment of older adult asthmatics. Ann Emerg Med 17: 322–326CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Victoria MS, Battista CJ, Nangia BS (1977) Comparison of subcutaneous terbutaline with epinephrine in the treatment of asthma in children. J Allergy Clin Immunol 59: 128–135CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Victoria MS, Battista CJ, Nangia BS (1989) Comparison between epinephrine and terbutaline injections in the acute management of asthma. J Asthma 26: 287–290PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Rodrigo GJ, Rodrigo C, Pollack CV, Rowe B (2003) Use of helium-oxygen mixtures in the treatment of acute asthma: a systematic review. Chest 123: 891–896CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Petrillo TM, Fortenberry JD, Linzer JF, Simon HK (2001) Emergency department use of ketamine in pediatric status asthmaticus. J Asthma 38: 657–664CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Howton JC, Rose J, Duffy S, Zoltanski T, Levitt MA (1996) Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of intravenous ketamine in acute asthma. Ann Emerg Med 27: 170–175PubMedGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Antonelli M, Pennisi MA, Montini L (2005) Clinical review: Noninvasive ventilation in the clinical setting — experience from the past 10 years. Crit Care 9: 98–103CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Ram FS, Wellington S, Rowe BH, Wedzicha JA (2005) Non-invasive positive pressure ventilation for treatment of respiratory failure due to severe acute exacerbations of asthma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD004360Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Leatherman JW, McArthur C, Shapiro RS (2004) Effect of prolongation of expiratory time on dynamic hyperinflation in mechanically ventilated patients with severe asthma. Crit Care Med 32: 1542–1545CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Bowman FP, Menegazzi JJ, Check BD, Duckett TM (1995) Lower esophageal sphincter pressure during prolonged cardiac arrest and resuscitation. Ann Emerg Med 26: 216–219CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Lapinsky SE, Leung RS (1996) Auto-PEEP and electromechanical dissociation. N Engl J Med 335: 674CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Rogers PL, Schlichtig R, Miro A, Pinsky M (1991) Auto-PEEP during CPR. An „occult“ cause of electromechanical dissociation? Chest 99: 492–493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Rosengarten PL, Tuxen DV, Dziukas L, Scheinkestel C, Merrett K, Bowes G (1991) Circulatory arrest induced by intermittent positive pressure ventilation in a patient with severe asthma. Anaesth Intensive Care 19: 118–121PubMedGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Sprung J, Hunter K, Barnas GM, Bourke DL (1994) Abdominal distention is not always a sign of esophageal intubation: cardiac arrest due to „auto-PEEP“. Anesth Analg 78: 801–804PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Deakin CD, McLaren RM, Petley GW, Clewlow F, Dalrymple-Hay MJ (1998) Effects of positive end-expiratory pressure on transthoracic impedance — implications for defibrillation. Resuscitation 37: 9–12CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Mazzeo AT, Spada A, Pratico C, Lucanto T, Santamaria LB (2004) Hypercapnia: what is the limit in paediatric patients? A case of near-fatal asthma successfully treated by multipharmacological approach. Paediatr Anaesth 14: 596–603CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Mertes PM, Laxenaire MC, Alla F (2003) Anaphylactic and anaphylactoid reactions occurring during anesthesia in France in 1999–2000. Anesthesiology 99: 536–545CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Yunginger JW (1999) Latex allergy in the workplace: an overview of where we are. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol 83: 630–633PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Dreyfus DH, Fraser B, Randolph CC (2004) Anaphylaxis to latex in patients without identified risk factors for latex allergy. Conn Med 68: 217–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Ownby DR (2002) A history of latex allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol 110: 27–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Pumphrey RS (2000) Lessons for management of anaphylaxis from a study of fatal reactions. Clin Exp Allergy 30: 1144–1150CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Pumphrey RS (2004) Fatal anaphylaxis in the UK, 1992–2001. Novartis Found Symp 257: 116–285PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Incorvaia C, Senna G, Mauro M et al. (2004) Prevalence of allergic reactions to Hymenoptera stings in northern Italy. Allerg Immunol (Paris) 36: 372–374Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Pumphrey RS, Roberts IS (2000) Postmortem findings after fatal anaphylactic reactions. J Clin Pathol 53: 273–276CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Mullins RJ (2003) Anaphylaxis: risk factors for recurrence. Clin Exp Allergy 33: 1033–1040CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Brown AF (2001) Anaphylaxis: quintessence, quarrels, and quandaries. Emerg Med J 18: 328CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Brown AF (2004) Anaphylaxis gets the adrenaline going. Emerg Med J 21: 128–129CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Ishoo E, Shah UK, Grillone GA, Stram JR, Fuleihan NS (1999) Predicting airway risk in angioedema: staging system based on presentation. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 121: 263–268CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Pumphrey R (2004) Anaphylaxis: can we tell who is at risk of a fatal reaction? Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol 4: 285–290CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Simons FE, Gu X, Simons KJ (2001) Epinephrine absorption in adults: intramuscular versus subcutaneous injection. J Allergy Clin Immunol 108: 871–873CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Simons FER, Chan ES, Gu X, Simons KJ (2001) Epinephrine for the out-of-hospital (first-aid) treatment of anaphylaxis in infants: Is the ampule/syringe/needle method practical? Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology 108: 1040–1044CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Winbery SL, Lieberman PL (2002) Histamine and antihistamines in anaphylaxis. Clin Allergy Immunol 17: 287–317PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Kill C, Wranze E, Wulf H (2004) Successful treatment of severe anaphylactic shock with vasopressin. Two case reports. Int Arch Allergy Immunol 134: 260–126CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Williams SR, Denault AY, Pellerin M, Martineau R (2004) Vasopressin for treatment of shock following aprotinin administration. Can J Anaesth 51: 169–172PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Visscher PK, Vetter RS, Camazine S (1996) Removing bee stings. Lancet 348: 301–302CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Yocum MW, Butterfield JH, Klein JS, Volcheck GW, Schroeder DR, Silverstein MD (1999) Epidemiology of anaphylaxis in Olmsted County: a population-based study. J Allergy Clin Immunol 104: 452–456CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Ellis AK, Day JH (2003) Diagnosis and management of anaphylaxis. CMAJ 169: 307–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Smith PL, Kagey-Sobotka A, Bleecker ER et al. (1980) Physiologic manifestations of human anaphylaxis. J Clin Invest 66: 1072–1080PubMedGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Stark BJ, Sullivan TJ (1986) Biphasic and protracted anaphylaxis. J Allergy Clin Immunol 78: 76–83CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Brazil E, MacNamara AF (1998) „Not so immediate“ hypersensitivity: the danger of biphasic anaphylactic reactions. J Accid Emerg Med 15: 252–253PubMedGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Brady WJ Jr, Luber S, Carter CT, Guertler A, Lindbeck G (1997) Multiphasic anaphylaxis: an uncommon event in the emergency department. Acad Emerg Med 4: 193–197PubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Joint Working Party of the Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland and the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology (2003) Suspected anaphylactic reactions associated with anaesthesia, 3rd edn. The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland and British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 2003, LondonGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Payne V, Kam PC (2004) Mast cell tryptase: a review of its physiology and clinical significance. Anaesthesia 59: 695–703CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Anthi A, Tzelepis GE, Alivizatos P, Michalis A, Palatianos GM, Geroulanos S (1998) Unexpected cardiac arrest after cardiac surgery: Incidence, predisposing causes, and outcome of open chest cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Chest 113: 15–19PubMedGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Wahba A, Gotz W, Birnbaum DE (1997) Outcome of cardiopulmonary resuscitation following open heart surgery. Scand Cardiovasc J 31: 147–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Rhodes JF, Blaufox AD, Seiden HS et al. (1999) Cardiac arrest in infants after congenital heart surgery. Circulation 100: 194–199Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Dimopoulou I, Anthi A, Michalis A, Tzelepis GE (2001) Functional status and quality of life in long-term survivors of cardiac arrest after cardiac surgery. Crit Care Med 29: 1408–1411CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  195. 195.
    Mackay JH, Powell SJ, Osgathorp J, Rozario CJ (2002) Six-year prospective audit of chest reopening after cardiac arrest. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 22: 421–425CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Pottle A, Bullock I, Thomas J, Scott L (2002) Survival to discharge following Open Chest Cardiac Compression (OCCC). A 4-year retrospective audit in a cardiothoracic specialist centre — Royal Brompton and Harefield NHS Trust, United Kingdom. Resuscitation 52: 269–272CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Raman J, Saldanha RF, Branch JM et al. (1989) Open cardiac compression in the postoperative cardiac intensive care unit. Anaesth Intensive Care 1;17: 129–135Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Birdi I, Chaudhuri N, Lenthall K, Reddy S, Nashef SA (2000) Emergency reinstitution of cardiopulmonary bypass following cardiac surgery: outcome justifies the cost. Eur J Cardiothorac Surg 17: 743–746CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Rousou JA, Engelman RM, Flack JE 3rd, Deaton DW, Owen SG (1994) Emergency cardiopulmonary bypass in the cardiac surgical unit can be a lifesaving measure in postoperative cardiac arrest. Circulation 90: 1280–1284Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Schwarz B, Bowdle TA, Jett GK et al. (2003) Biphasic shocks compared with monophasic damped sine wave shocks for direct ventricular defibrillation during open heart surgery. Anesthesiology 98: 1063–1069CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Rosemurgy AS, Norris PA, Olson SM, Hurst JM, Albrink MH (1993) Prehospital traumatic cardiac arrest: the cost of futility. J Trauma 35: 468–473PubMedGoogle Scholar
  202. 202.
    Battistella FD, Nugent W, Owings JT, Anderson JT (1999) Field triage of the pulseless trauma patient. Arch Surg 134: 742–745CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Shimazu S, Shatney CH (1983) Outcomes of trauma patients with no vital signs on hospital admission. J Trauma 23: 213–216PubMedGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Stockinger ZT, McSwain NE Jr (2004) Additional evidence in support of withholding or terminating cardiopulmonary resuscitation for trauma patients in the field. Journal of the American College of Surgeons 198: 227–231CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  205. 205.
    Fulton RL, Voigt WJ, Hilakos AS (1995) Confusion surrounding the treatment of traumatic cardiac arrest. J Am Coll Surg 181: 209–214PubMedGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Pasquale MD, Rhodes M, Cipolle MD, Hanley T, Wasser T (1996) Defining „dead on arrival“: impact on a level I trauma center. J Trauma 41: 726–730PubMedGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Stratton SJ, Brickett K, Crammer T (1998) Prehospital pulseless, unconscious penetrating trauma victims: field assessments associated with survival. J Trauma 45: 96–100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Maron BJ, Gohman TE, Kyle SB, Estes NA 3rd, Link MS (2002) Clinical profile and spectrum of commotio cordis. JAMA 287: 1142–1146CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Maron BJ, Estes NA 3rd, Link MS (2005) Task Force 11: commotio cordis. J Am Coll Cardiol 45: 1371–1373CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Nesbitt AD, Cooper PJ, Kohl P (2001) Rediscovering commotio cordis. Lancet 357: 1195–1197CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Link MS, Estes M, Maron BJ (2005) Sudden death caused by chest wall trauma (commotio cordis). In: Kohl P, Sachs F, Franz MR (eds) Cardiac mechano-electric feedback and arrhythmias: from pipette to patient. Elsevier Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 270–276Google Scholar
  212. 212.
    Bouillon B, Walther T, Kramer M, Neugebauer E (1994) Trauma and circulatory arrest: 224 preclinical resuscitations in Cologne in 1987–1990. Anaesthesist 43: 786–790CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Fisher B, Worthen M (1999) Cardiac arrest induced by blunt trauma in children. Pediatr Emerg Care 15: 274–276PubMedGoogle Scholar
  214. 214.
    Hazinski MF, Chahine AA, Holcomb GW 3rd, Morris JA Jr (1994) Outcome of cardiovascular collapse in pediatric blunt trauma. Ann Emerg Med 23: 1229–1235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  215. 215.
    Calkins CM, Bensard DD, Partrick DA, Karrer FM (2002) A critical analysis of outcome for children sustaining cardiac arrest after blunt trauma. J Pediatr Surg 37: 180–184CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Yanagawa Y, Saitoh D, Takasu A, Kaneko N, Sakamoto T, Okada Y (2004) Experience of treatment for blunt traumatic out-of-hospital cardiopulmonary arrest patients over 24 years: head injury v.s. non-head injury. No Shinkei Geka 32: 231–235PubMedGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Cera SM, Mostafa G, Sing RF, Sarafin JL, Matthews BD, Heniford BT (2003) Physiologic predictors of survival in post-traumatic arrest. Am Surg 69: 140–144PubMedGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Esposito TJ, Jurkovich GJ, Rice CL, Maier RV, Copass MK, Ashbaugh DG (1991) Reappraisal of emergency room thoracotomy in a changing environment. J Trauma 31: 881–887PubMedGoogle Scholar
  219. 219.
    Martin SK, Shatney CH, Sherck JP et al. (2002) Blunt trauma patients with prehospital pulseless electrical activity (PEA): poor ending assured. J Trauma 53: 876–881PubMedGoogle Scholar
  220. 220.
    Domeier RM, McSwain NE Jr, Hopson LR et al. (2003) Guidelines for withholding or termination of resuscitation in prehospital traumatic cardiopulmonary arrest. J Am Coll Surg 196: 475–481CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  221. 221.
    Pickens JJ, Copass MK, Bulger EM (2005) Trauma patients receiving CPR: predictors of survival. J Trauma 58: 951–958PubMedGoogle Scholar
  222. 222.
    Gervin AS, Fischer RP (1082) The importance of prompt transport of salvage of patients with penetrating heart wounds. J Trauma 22: 443–448Google Scholar
  223. 223.
    Branney SW, Moore EE, Feldhaus KM, Wolfe RE (1998) Critical analysis of two decades of experience with postinjury emergency department thoracotomy in a regional trauma center. J Trauma 45: 87–95PubMedGoogle Scholar
  224. 224.
    Durham LA III, Richardson RJ, Wall MJ Jr, Pepe PE, Mattox KL (1992) Emergency center thoracotomy: impact of prehospital resuscitation. J Trauma 32: 775–779PubMedGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Frezza EE, Mezghebe H (1999) Is 30 minutes the golden period to perform emergency room thoratomy (ERT) in penetrating chest injuries? J Cardiovas Surg 40: 147–151Google Scholar
  226. 226.
    Powell DW, Moore EE, Cothren CC et al. (2004) Is emergency department resuscitative thoracotomy futile care for the critically injured patient requiring prehospital cardiopulmonary resuscitation? J Am Coll Surg 199: 211–215CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Coats TJ, Keogh S, Clark H, Neal M (2001) Prehospital resuscitative thoracotomy for cardiac arrest after penetrating trauma: rationale and case series. J Trauma 50: 670–673PubMedGoogle Scholar
  228. 228.
    Wise D, Davies G, Coats T, Lockey D, Hyde J, Good A (2005) Emergency thoracotomy: „how to do it“. Emerg Med J 22: 22–24CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  229. 229.
    Kwan I, Bunn F, Roberts I (2001) Spinal immobilisation for trauma patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD002803Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    Voiglio EJ, Coats TJ, Baudoin YP, Davies GD, Wilson AW (2003) Resuscitative transverse thoracotomy. Ann Chir 128: 728–733CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  231. 231.
    Ad Hoc Subcommittee on Outcomes (2001) Practice management guidelines for emergency department thoracotomy. Working Group. J Am Coll Surg 193: 303–309CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Jones JH, Murphy MP, Dickson RL, Somerville GG, Brizendine EJ (2004) Emergency physician-verified out-of-hospital intubation: miss rates by paramedics. Acad Emerg Med 11: 707–709CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  233. 233.
    Jemmett ME, Kendal KM, Fourre MW, Burton JH (2003) Unrecognized misplacement of endotracheal tubes in a mixed urban to rural emergency medical services setting. Acad Emerg Med 10: 961–965CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  234. 234.
    Katz SH, Falk JL (2001) Misplaced endotracheal tubes by paramedics in an urban emergency medical services system. Ann Emerg Med 37: 32–37CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  235. 235.
    Deakin CD, Peters R, Tomlinson P, Cassidy M (2005) Securing the prehospital airway: a comparison of laryngeal mask insertion and endotracheal intubation by UK paramedics. Emerg Med J 22: 64–67CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  236. 236.
    Pepe PE, Roppolo LP, Fowler RL (2005) The detrimental effects of ventilation during low-blood-flow states. Curr Opin Crit Care 11: 212–218CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  237. 237.
    Deakin CD, Davies G, Wilson A (1995) Simple thoracostomy avoids chest drain insertion in prehospital trauma. J Trauma 39: 373–374PubMedGoogle Scholar
  238. 238.
    Luna GK, Pavlin EG, Kirkman T, Copass MK, Rice CL (1989) Hemodynamic effects of external cardiac massage in trauma shock. J Trauma 29: 1430–1433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  239. 239.
    Gao JM, Gao YH, Wei GB et al. (2004) Penetrating cardiac wounds: principles for surgical management. World J Surg 28: 1025–1029CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  240. 240.
    Kwan I, Bunn F, Roberts I (2003) Timing and volume of fluid administration for patients with bleeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD002245Google Scholar
  241. 241.
    Pepe PE, Mosesso VNJ, Falk JL (2002) Prehospital fluid resuscitation of the patient with major trauma. Prehospital Emergency Care 6: 81–91PubMedGoogle Scholar
  242. 242.
    Bickell WH, Wall MJ Jr, Pepe PE et al. (1994) Immediate versus delayed fluid resuscitation for hypotensive patients with penetrating torso injuries. N Engl J Med 331: 1105–1109CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    National Institute for Clinical Excellence (2004) Pre-hospital initiation of fluid replacement therapy for trauma. National Institute for Clinical Excellence, LondonGoogle Scholar
  244. 244.
    Sumida MP, Quinn K, Lewis PL et al. (2000) Prehospital blood transfusion versus crystalloid alone in the air medical transport of trauma patients. Air Med J 19: 140–143CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  245. 245.
    Barkana Y, Stein M, Maor R, Lynn M, Eldad A (1999) Prehospital blood transfusion in prolonged evacuation. J Trauma 46: 176–180PubMedGoogle Scholar
  246. 246.
    Walcher F, Kortum S, Kirschning T, Weihgold N, Marzi I (2002) Optimized management of polytraumatized patients by prehospital ultrasound]. Unfallchirurg 105: 986–994CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  247. 247.
    Krismer AC, Wenzel V, Voelckel WG et al. (2005) Employing vasopressin as an adjunct vasopressor in uncontrolled traumatic hemorrhagic shock. Three cases and a brief analysis of the literature. Anaesthesist 54: 220–224CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  248. 248.
    Department of Health, Welsh Office, Scottish Office Department of Health, Department of Health and Social Services, Northern Ireland (2004) Why mothers die. Report on confidential enquiries into maternal deaths in the United Kingdom, 2000–2002. The Stationery Office, LondonGoogle Scholar
  249. 249.
    Page-Rodriguez A, Gonzalez-Sanchez JA (1999) Perimortem cesarean section of twin pregnancy: case report and review of the literature. Acad Emerg Med 6: 1072–1074PubMedGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Cardosi RJ, Porter KB (1998) Cesarean delivery of twins during maternal cardiopulmonary arrest. Obstet Gynecol 92: 695–697CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  251. 251.
    Kinsella SM (2003) Lateral tilt for pregnant women: why 15 degrees? Anaesthesia 58: 835–836CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  252. 252.
    Nanson J, Elcock D, Williams M, Deakin CD (2001) Do physiological changes in pregnancy change defibrillation energy requirements? Br J Anaesth 87: 237–239CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  253. 253.
    Johnson MD, Luppi CJ, Over DC (1998) Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation. In: Gambling DR, Douglas MJ, eds. Obstetric Anesthesia and Uncommon Disorders. W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 51–74Google Scholar
  254. 254.
    Rahman K, Jenkins JG (2005) Failed tracheal intubation in obstetrics: no more frequent but still managed badly. Anaesthesia 60: 168–171CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Henderson JJ, Popat MT, Latto IP, Pearce AC (2004) Difficult Airway Society guidelines for management of the unanticipated difficult intubation. Anaesthesia 59: 675–694CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  256. 256.
    Catling S, Joels L (2005) Cell salvage in obstetrics: the time has come. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 112: 131–132Google Scholar
  257. 257.
    Ahonen J, Jokela R (2005) Recombinant factor VIIa for life-threatening post-partum haemorrhage. Br J Anaesth 94: 592–595CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  258. 258.
    Bouwmeester FW, Bolte AC, van Geijn HP (2005) Pharmacological and surgical therapy for primary postpartum hemorrhage. Curr Pharm Des 11: 759–773CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  259. 259.
    El-Hamamy E, C BL (2005) A worldwide review of the uses of the uterine compression suture techniques as alternative to hysterectomy in the management of severe post-partum haemorrhage. J Obstet Gynaecol 25: 143–149PubMedGoogle Scholar
  260. 260.
    Hong TM, Tseng HS, Lee RC, Wang JH, Chang CY (2004) Uterine artery embolization: an effective treatment for intractable obstetric haemorrhage. Clin Radiol 59: 96–101CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Yu S, Pennisi JA, Moukhtar M, Friedman EA (1995) Placental abruption in association with advanced abdominal pregnancy. A case report. J Reprod Med 40: 731–735PubMedGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Wlody D (2003) Complications of regional anesthesia in obstetrics. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology 46: 667–678CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  263. 263.
    Ray P, Murphy GJ, Shutt LE (2004) Recognition and management of maternal cardiac disease in pregnancy. Br J Anaesth 93: 428–439CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  264. 264.
    Abbas AE, Lester SJ, Connolly H (2005) Pregnancy and the cardiovascular system. Int J Cardiol 98: 179–189CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  265. 265.
    Doan-Wiggins L (1997) Resuscitation of the pregnant patient suffering sudden death. In: Paradis NA, Halperin HR, Nowak RM, eds. Cardiac Arrest: The Science and Practice of Resuscitation Medicine. Williams & Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 812–819Google Scholar
  266. 266.
    Sibai B, Dekker G, Kupferminc M (2005) Pre-eclampsia. Lancet 365: 785–799PubMedGoogle Scholar
  267. 267.
    Sibai BM (2005) Diagnosis, prevention, and management of eclampsia. Obstet Gynecol 105: 402–410PubMedGoogle Scholar
  268. 268.
    Dapprich M, Boessenecker W (2002) Fibrinolysis with alteplase in a pregnant woman with stroke. Cerebrovasc Dis 13: 290CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  269. 269.
    Turrentine MA, Braems G, Ramirez MM (1995) Use of thrombolytics for the treatment of thromboembolic disease during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol Surv 50: 534–541CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  270. 270.
    Thabut G, Thabut D, Myers RP et al. (2002) Thrombolytic therapy of pulmonary embolism: a meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 40: 1660–1667CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  271. 271.
    Patel RK, Fasan O, Arya R (2003) Thrombolysis in pregnancy. Thromb Haemost 90: 1216–1217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  272. 272.
    Tuffnell DJ (2003) Amniotic fluid embolism. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 15: 119–122CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  273. 273.
    Stanten RD, Iverson LI, Daugharty TM, Lovett SM, Terry C, Blumenstock E (2003) Amniotic fluid embolism causing catastrophic pulmonary vasoconstriction: diagnosis by transesophageal echocardiogram and treatment by cardiopulmonary bypass. Obstet Gynecol 102: 496–498CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  274. 274.
    Katz VL, Dotters DJ, Droegemueller W (1986) Perimortem cesarean delivery. Obstet Gynecol 68: 571–576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  275. 275.
    International Consensus on Science (2000) Guidelines 2000 for Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care, Part 8: advanced challenges in resuscitation. Section 3: special challenges in ECC. 3F: cardiac arrest associated with pregnancy. Resuscitation 46: 293–295CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  276. 276.
    Cummins RO, Hazinski MF, Zelop CM (2003) Cardiac Arrest Associated with Pregnancy, Chapter 4, Part 6. In: Cummins R, Hazinski M, Field J (eds) ACLS-The Reference Textbook. American Heart Association, Dallas, pp 143–158Google Scholar
  277. 277.
    Oates S, Williams GL, Rees GA (1988) Cardiopulmonary resuscitation in late pregnancy. BMJ 297: 404–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  278. 278.
    Strong THJ, Lowe RA (1989) Perimortem cesarean section. Am J Emerg Med 7: 489–494CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  279. 279.
    Boyd R, Teece S (2002) Towards evidence based emergency medicine: best BETs from the Manchester Royal Infirmary. Perimortem caesarean section. Emerg Med J 19: 324–325CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. 280.
    Moore C, Promes SB (2004) Ultrasound in pregnancy. Emerg Med Clin North Am 22: 697–722CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  281. 281.
    Budnick LD (1984) Bathtub-related electrocutions in the United States, 1979 to 1982. JAMA 252: 918–920CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  282. 282.
    Lightning-associated deaths (1998) Lightning-associated deaths, United States, 1980–1995. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 47: 391–394PubMedGoogle Scholar
  283. 283.
    Geddes LA, Bourland JD, Ford G (1986) The mechanism underlying sudden death from electric shock. Med Instrum 20: 303–315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  284. 284.
    Zafren K, Durrer B, Herry JP, Brugger H (2005) Lightning injuries: prevention and on-site treatment in mountains and remote areas. Official guidelines of the International Commission for Mountain Emergency Medicine and the Medical Commission of the International Mountaineering and Climbing Federation (ICAR and UIAA MEDCOM). Resuscitation 65: 369–372CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  285. 285.
    Cherington M (1995) Lightning injuries. Ann Emerg Med 25: 517–519CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  286. 286.
    Fahmy FS, Brinsden MD, Smith J, Frame JD (1999) Lightning: the multisystem group injuries. J Trauma 46: 937–940PubMedGoogle Scholar
  287. 287.
    Patten BM (1992) Lightning and electrical injuries. Neurol Clin 10: 1047–1058PubMedGoogle Scholar
  288. 288.
    Browne BJ, Gaasch WR (1992) Electrical injuries and lightning. Emerg Med Clin North Am 10: 211–229PubMedGoogle Scholar
  289. 289.
    Kleiner JP, Wilkin JH (1978) Cardiac effects of lightning stroke. JAMA 240: 2757–2759CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  290. 290.
    Lichtenberg R, Dries D, Ward K, Marshall W, Scanlon P (1993) Cardiovascular effects of lightning strikes. J Am Coll Cardiol 21: 531–536PubMedGoogle Scholar
  291. 291.
    Cooper MA (1995) Emergent care of lightning and electrical injuries. Semin Neurol 15: 268–278PubMedGoogle Scholar
  292. 292.
    Milzman DP, Moskowitz L, Hardel M (1999) Lightning strikes at a mass gathering. South Med J 92: 708–710PubMedGoogle Scholar
  293. 293.
    Cooper MA (1980) Lightning injuries: prognostic signs for death. Ann Emerg Med 9: 134–138CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  294. 294.
    Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK (1995) Neuropathology of lightning strike injuries. Semin Neurol 15: 323–328PubMedGoogle Scholar
  295. 295.
    Stewart CE (2000) When lightning strikes. Emerg Med Serv 29: 57–103Google Scholar
  296. 296.
    Duclos PJ, Sanderson LM (1990) An epidemiological description of lightning-related deaths in the United States. Int J Epidemiol 19: 673–679PubMedGoogle Scholar
  297. 297.
    Epperly TD, Stewart JR (1989) The physical effects of lightning injury. J Fam Pract 29: 267–272PubMedGoogle Scholar
  298. 298.
    Whitcomb D, Martinez JA, Daberkow D (2002) Lightning injuries. South Med J 95: 1331–1334PubMedGoogle Scholar
  299. 299.
    Goldman RD, Einarson A, Koren G (2003) Electric shock during pregnancy. Can Fam Phys 49: 297–298Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Medizin Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. Soar
  • C. D. Deakin
  • J. P. Nolan
  • G. Abbas
  • A. Alfonzo
  • A. J. Handley
  • D. Lockey
  • G. D. Perkins
  • K. Thies
  • B. W. Böttiger
    • 1
  • B. Dirks
    • 2
  • V. Dörges
    • 3
  • H. Domanovits
    • 4
  • H. Gervais
    • 5
    • 6
  1. 1.Universitätsklinik für AnästhesiologieUniversitätsklinikum Heidelberg
  2. 2.Sektion NotfallmedizinUniversitätsklinik für AnästhesiologieUlm
  3. 3.Klinik für Anästhesiologie und Operative IntensivmedizinUniversitätsklinikum Kiel
  4. 4.Medizinische Universität Wien
  5. 5.Klinik für AnästhesiologieJohannes Gutenberg UniversitätMainz
  6. 6.Klinik für AnästhesiologieJohannes Gutenberg UniversitätMainz

Personalised recommendations