Journal of Artificial Organs

, Volume 18, Issue 1, pp 40–47 | Cite as

In situ observation and enhancement of leaflet tissue formation in bioprosthetic “biovalve”

  • Marina Funayama
  • Yoshiaki TakewaEmail author
  • Tomonori Oie
  • Yuichi Matsui
  • Eisuke Tatsumi
  • Yasuhide NakayamaEmail author
Original Article Artificial Valve


Biovalves, autologous tri-leaflet valved conduits, are formed in the subcutaneous spaces of animals. The valves are formed using molds encapsulated with autologous connective tissues. However, tissue migration into the small apertures in the molds for leaflet formation is generally slower than that for conduit formation around the molds. In this study, the formation of the leaflet tissues was directly and non-invasively observed using a wireless capsule endoscope. The molds were assembled from 6 parts, one of which was impregnated with the endoscope, and embedded into subcutaneous pouches in goats (n = 30). Tissue ingrowth into the apertures gradually occurred from the edges of the leaflet parts. Tissue formation was accompanied by capillary formation. At 63.1 ± 17.1 days after embedding, the apertures were completely replaced with autologous connective tissue, forming the leaflet tissues. Leaflet formation was enhanced by including fat tissue (46.7 ± 4.2 days) or blood (41.1 ± 6.9 days) in the apertures before embedding. The creation of slit openings, in conjunction with addition of blood to the apertures, further enhanced leaflet formation (37.0 ± 2.8 days). Since leaflet formation could be observed endoscopically, the appropriate embedding period for complete biovalve formation could be determined.


In vivo tissue engineering Biovalve Heart valve Tissue formation Endoscope 


Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© The Japanese Society for Artificial Organs 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marina Funayama
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yoshiaki Takewa
    • 3
    Email author
  • Tomonori Oie
    • 1
    • 4
  • Yuichi Matsui
    • 1
  • Eisuke Tatsumi
    • 3
  • Yasuhide Nakayama
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Division of Medical Engineering and MaterialsNational Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center Research InstituteSuitaJapan
  2. 2.College of Bioresource SciencesNihon UniversityFujisawaJapan
  3. 3.Department of Artificial OrgansNational Cerebral and Cardiovascular Center Research InstituteOsakaJapan
  4. 4.Shinkan Kogyo Co.OsakaJapan

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