Current progress in inorganic artificial biomaterials
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- Li, Z. & Kawashita, M. J Artif Organs (2011) 14: 163. doi:10.1007/s10047-011-0585-5
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In this review, recent advances in bioceramics, metallic biomaterials, and their composites are discussed in terms of their material properties and new medical applications. Porous calcium phosphate ceramics have attracted a lot attention as scaffolds for tissue-engineering purposes since the porous structure allows bone ingrowth. The addition of biodegradable polymers like chitosan, gelatin, and collagen have modified the degradability of the ceramics and their mechanical properties. Titanium (Ti) alloys are being developed for the fabrication of medical devices for the replacement of hard tissue such as artificial hip joints, bone plates, and dental implants because they are very reliable from the viewpoint of mechanical performance. Physical treatment such as grooving or setting a spatial gap on the surface of materials is applicable to improve the apatite formation on the Ti alloys. Blood-compatible polymers such as poly(ethylene glycol) have been successfully fixed on the surface of Ti via chemical bonding by an electrodeposition method. New functions have been explored in Ni-free, Co–Cr–Mo alloys and Mg alloys. In addition, yttrium-containing or phosphorus-containing glass microspheres (20–30 μm in diameter) and ferrimagnetic ceramic particles have exhibited great potential to realize minimally invasive treatment of cancer without surgical operation via in situ radiotherapy or hyperthermia of cancer, but it is still a major challenge to clarify the biological reaction between the artificial implants and living body before their application.