Safety evaluation of surgical materials by cytotoxicity testing
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The cytotoxicity of three kinds of commercially available absorbable hemostats [oxidized cellulose (Surgicel, gauze and cotton types), microfibrillar collagen (Avitene), and cotton-type collagen (Integran)] and one adhesion barrier [sodium hyaluronate and carboxymethyl-cellulose membrane (Seprafilm)] were comparatively assessed by a colony assay using V79 cells and a minimum essential medium (MEM) elution assay in combination with a neutral red assay using L929 cells. Strong cytotoxicity was detected for Surgicel by both the MEM elution assay and the colony assay. For Avitene, both methods revealed weak cytotoxicity. For Seprafilm, no cytotoxicity was detected by the MEM elution assay, while a moderate degree of cytotoxicity was observed in the colony assay. For Integran cytotoxicity was not detected by either the MEM elution or the colony assay. The results of the different methods showed some inconsistency in terms of the degree of cytotoxicity of the materials. It is proposed that the combination of two or more sensitive cytotoxicity testing methods for the evaluation of biomaterials is necessary to avoid false-negative results for biomaterials at the preclinical stage. Furthermore, investigation of the correlation between the cytotoxicity and the extraction period of the surgical materials is helpful for predicting the effect of prolonged in vivo use of biomaterials on surrounding cells, tissues, and organs.
Key wordsSafety evaluation Surgical materials MEM elution assay Colony assay
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