Journal of Artificial Organs

, Volume 10, Issue 3, pp 133–142 | Cite as

Building artificial humans to understand humans

  • Hiroshi Ishiguro
  • Shuichi NishioEmail author


If we could build an android as a very humanlike robot, how would we humans distinguish a real human from an android? The answer to this question is not so easy. In human–android interaction, we cannot see the internal mechanism of the android, and thus we may simply believe that it is a human. This means that a human can be defined from two perspectives: one by organic mechanism and the other by appearance. Further, the current rapid progress in artificial organs makes this distinction confusing. The approach discussed in this article is to create artificial humans with humanlike appearances. The developed artificial humans, an android and a geminoid, can be used to improve understanding of humans through psychological and cognitive tests conducted using the artificial humans. We call this new approach to understanding humans android science.

Key words

Robot Android Geminoid Cognitive science 


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Copyright information

© The Japanese Society for Artificial Organs 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.ATR Intelligent Robotics and Communication Laboratories, Department of Adaptive Machine SystemsOsaka UniversityOsakaJapan

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