Pattern Analysis and Applications

, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp 517–530 | Cite as

Periocular recognition: how much facial expressions affect performance?

  • Elisa Barroso
  • Gil Santos
  • Luis Cardoso
  • Chandrashekhar Padole
  • Hugo Proença
Industrial and Commercial Application


Using information near the human eye to perform biometric recognition has been gaining popularity. Previous works in this area, designated periocular recognition, show remarkably low error rates and particularly high robustness when data are acquired under less controlled conditions. In this field, one factor that remains to be studied is the effect of facial expressions on recognition performance, as expressions change the textural/shape information inside the periocular region. We have collected a multisession dataset whose single variation is the subjects’ facial expressions and analyzed the corresponding variations in performance, using the state-of-the-art periocular recognition strategy. The effectiveness attained by different strategies to handle the effects of facial expressions was compared: (1) single-sample enrollment; (2) multisample enrollment, and (3) multisample enrollment with facial expression recognition, with results also validated in the well-known Cohn–Kanade AU-Coded Expression dataset. Finally, the role of each type of facial expression in the biometrics menagerie effect is discussed.


Periocular recognition Biometrics 



This work was carried out in the scope of the research project UID/EEA/50008/2013, R&D Unit 50008, financed by the applicable financial framework (FCT/MEC) through national funds and co-funded by FEDER PT2020 partnership agreement.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elisa Barroso
    • 1
  • Gil Santos
    • 1
  • Luis Cardoso
    • 1
  • Chandrashekhar Padole
    • 1
  • Hugo Proença
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computer Science, IT-Instituto de Telecomunicações University of Beira InteriorCovilhãPortugal

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