Pattern Analysis and Applications

, Volume 17, Issue 2, pp 223–248 | Cite as

Topology-oriented self-organizing maps: a survey

  • César A. AstudilloEmail author
  • B. John Oommen


The self-organizing map (SOM) is a prominent neural network model that has found wide application in a spectrum of domains. Accordingly, it has received widespread attention both from the communities of researchers and practitioners. As a result, several variations of the basic architecture have been devised, specifically in the early years of the SOM’s evolution, which were introduced so as to address various architectural shortcomings or to explore other structures of the basic model. The overall goal of this survey is to present a comprehensive comparison of these networks, in terms of their primitive components and properties. We dichotomize these schemes as being either tree based or non-tree based. We have embarked on this venture with the hope that since the survey is comprehensive and the bibliography extensive, it will be an asset and resource for future researchers.


Self-organizing maps Hierarchical SOM SOM Variants Survey 



We record our gratitude to the Associate Editor and anonymous referees of the original version of this paper for their painstaking reviews. The changes that they requested certainly improved the quality of this paper. The work of César A. Astudillo was partially supported by the FONDECYT Grant 11121350, Chile. The work of B. John Oommen was partially supported by NSERC, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer ScienceUniversidad de TalcaCuricóChile
  2. 2.School of Computer ScienceCarleton UniversityOttawaCanada

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