Pattern Analysis and Applications

, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 459–474 | Cite as

A methodology for detection and estimation in the analysis of golf putting

  • Micael S. Couceiro
  • David Portugal
  • Nuno Gonçalves
  • Rui Rocha
  • J. Miguel A. Luz
  • Carlos M. Figueiredo
  • Gonçalo Dias
Industrial and Commercial Application


This paper presents a methodology for visual detection and parameter estimation to analyze the effects of the variability in the performance of golf putting. A digital camera was used in each trial to track the putt gesture. The detection of the horizontal position of the golf club was performed using a computer vision technique, followed by an estimation algorithm divided in two different stages. On a first stage, diverse nonlinear estimation techniques were used and evaluated to extract a sinusoidal model of each trial. Secondly, several expert golf player trials were analyzed and, based on the results of the first stage, the Darwinian particle swarm optimization (DPSO) technique was employed to obtain a complete kinematical analysis and a characterization of each player’s putting technique. In this work, it is intended not only to test the performance of the DPSO method, but also to present a novel study in this field by identifying a putting “signature” of each player.


Golf putting Motion analysis Detection Estimation Signature 



This work was supported by Ph.D. scholarships (SFRH/BD/73382/2010) and (SFRH/BD/64426/2009) by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT), the Institute of Systems and Robotics (ISR) and RoboCorp at the Engineering Institute of Coimbra (ISEC) also under regular funding by FCT.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London Limited 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Micael S. Couceiro
    • 1
    • 2
  • David Portugal
    • 1
  • Nuno Gonçalves
    • 1
  • Rui Rocha
    • 1
  • J. Miguel A. Luz
    • 2
  • Carlos M. Figueiredo
    • 2
  • Gonçalo Dias
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Systems and RoboticsUniversity of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  2. 2.RoboCorp, Electrotechnics Engineering DepartmentEngineering Institute of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  3. 3.RoboCorp, Faculty of Sport Sciences and Physical EducationUniversity of Coimbra, University Stadium of CoimbraCoimbraPortugal

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