Optical Review

, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 149–157

Analytical Designing of Two-Aspherical-Mirror Anastigmats Permitting Practical Misalignments in a Soft-X-Ray Optics

  • Mitsunori Toyoda
  • Masaki Yamamoto

DOI: 10.1007/s10043-006-0149-8

Cite this article as:
Toyoda, M. & Yamamoto, M. OPT REV (2006) 13: 149. doi:10.1007/s10043-006-0149-8


A new analytical method of designing two-aspherical-mirror anastigmats was developed and applied to searching solution groups of soft X-ray microscopes of a large misalignment tolerance. The two-mirror anastigmat configurations were expressed by a practical variable related to pupil obstruction limiting the system throughput. Axial coma and other aberrations caused by a slight decenter of the system were then formulated to represent sensitivity to misalignment. These formulations enabled a global survey of solution groups as demonstrated by a designing example of soft X-ray microscopes with a magnification m = −1/50, which resulted in four solutions more insensitive to misalignment than a standard Schwarzschild optics in the soft X-ray region. Some solutions were also found to have much larger fields of view suitable for high resolution imaging as confirmed by computer ray tracing.

Key words

anastigmat aspherical mirror misalignment soft X-ray microscope 

Copyright information

© The Optical Society of Japan 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mitsunori Toyoda
    • 1
  • Masaki Yamamoto
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Center for Soft X-Ray MicroscopyInstitute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku UniversityAoba-ku, SendaiJapan

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