Optical Review

, Volume 13, Issue 3, pp 149–157

Analytical Designing of Two-Aspherical-Mirror Anastigmats Permitting Practical Misalignments in a Soft-X-Ray Optics

  • Mitsunori Toyoda
  • Masaki Yamamoto
OPTICAL SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES

Abstract

A new analytical method of designing two-aspherical-mirror anastigmats was developed and applied to searching solution groups of soft X-ray microscopes of a large misalignment tolerance. The two-mirror anastigmat configurations were expressed by a practical variable related to pupil obstruction limiting the system throughput. Axial coma and other aberrations caused by a slight decenter of the system were then formulated to represent sensitivity to misalignment. These formulations enabled a global survey of solution groups as demonstrated by a designing example of soft X-ray microscopes with a magnification m = −1/50, which resulted in four solutions more insensitive to misalignment than a standard Schwarzschild optics in the soft X-ray region. Some solutions were also found to have much larger fields of view suitable for high resolution imaging as confirmed by computer ray tracing.

Key words

anastigmat aspherical mirror misalignment soft X-ray microscope 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    D. Attowood: Soft X-Rays and Extreme Ultraviolet Radiation (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2000) Chap. 9.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    B. Niemann, D. Rudolph and G. Schmahl: Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. 208 (1983) 367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    K. Murakami, T. Oshino, H. Nakamura, M. Ohtani and H. Nagata: Appl. Opt. 32 (1993) 7057.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    I. A. Artyukov, A. I. Fedorenko, V. V. Kondratenko, S. A. Yulin and A. V. Vinogradov: Opt. Commun. 102 (1993) 401.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    M. Toyoda, Y. Shitani, M. Yanagihara, T. Ejima, M. Yamamoto and M. Watanabe: Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 39 (2000) 1926.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Y. Horikawa, S. Mochimaru, Y. Iketaki and K. Nagai: Proc. SPIE 1720 (1992) 217.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    D. Korsch: Reflective Optics (Academic Press, San Diego, 1991) p. 151.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Y. Matsui and K. Nariai: Fundamentals of Practical Aberration Theory (World Scientific, Singapore, 1993) Chap. 3.1.4.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    For example, V. N. Mahajan: Optical Imaging and Aberrations (SPIE Press, Washington, 1998) Part 1, Chap. 1.3.7.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    See Chap. 3.2.3 of ref. 8.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    See Chap. 1.2 of ref. 8.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    See Appendix A of ref. 8.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    P. L. Ruben: J. Opt. Soc. Am. 54 (1964) 45.ADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. Rimmer: Appl. Opt. 9 (1970) 533.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    R. Gelles: J. Opt. Soc. Am. 68 (1978) 1250.ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Y. Matsui: Proc. SPIE 1319 (1990) 604.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Y. Matsui: Henshin no Sonzaisuru Kougakukei no Sanji no Syusaron (Third order aberration theory for misaligned optics) (Japan Optoelectro-Mechanics Association, Tokyo, 1990) p. 16 [in Japanese].Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    See Chap. 8.4 of ref. 7.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    R. V. Willstrop: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 204 (1983) 99.ADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Optical Society of Japan 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mitsunori Toyoda
    • 1
  • Masaki Yamamoto
    • 1
  1. 1.Research Center for Soft X-Ray MicroscopyInstitute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku UniversityAoba-ku, SendaiJapan

Personalised recommendations