Optical Elements with Subwavelength Structured Surfaces
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Various optical elements with subwavelength structured surfaces have been developed. The periods of the subwavelength structures are too short to generate diffracted light waves. But the structures are equivalent to refractive index materials with form birefringence. Many new optical elements are realized using the artificial refractive indices of these subwavelength structures. Some typical elements are described here in the passive element regime, and fabrication methods of the elements are explained.
Key wordssubwavelength gratings SWS effective medium theory form birefringence antireflection structure moth-eye polarization elements optical filter
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