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Hydrogeology Journal

, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp 281–291 | Cite as

Analysis of recovery efficiency in high-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage: a Rayleigh-based method

  • Gilian Schout
  • Benno DrijverEmail author
  • Mariene Gutierrez-Neri
  • Ruud Schotting
Paper

Abstract

High-temperature aquifer thermal energy storage (HT-ATES) is an important technique for energy conservation. A controlling factor for the economic feasibility of HT-ATES is the recovery efficiency. Due to the effects of density-driven flow (free convection), HT-ATES systems applied in permeable aquifers typically have lower recovery efficiencies than conventional (low-temperature) ATES systems. For a reliable estimation of the recovery efficiency it is, therefore, important to take the effect of density-driven flow into account. A numerical evaluation of the prime factors influencing the recovery efficiency of HT-ATES systems is presented. Sensitivity runs evaluating the effects of aquifer properties, as well as operational variables, were performed to deduce the most important factors that control the recovery efficiency. A correlation was found between the dimensionless Rayleigh number (a measure of the relative strength of free convection) and the calculated recovery efficiencies. Based on a modified Rayleigh number, two simple analytical solutions are proposed to calculate the recovery efficiency, each one covering a different range of aquifer thicknesses. The analytical solutions accurately reproduce all numerically modeled scenarios with an average error of less than 3 %. The proposed method can be of practical use when considering or designing an HT-ATES system.

Keywords

Aquifer thermal energy storage Density-driven flow Numerical modeling The Netherlands Thermal systems 

Analyse de l’efficacité de la récupération en stockage d’énergie thermale en aquifère à haute température: une méthode basée sur l’approche de Rayleigh

Résumé

Le stockage d’énergie thermale en aquifère à haute température (HT-ATES) est une technique importante pour la conservation de l’énergie. Un facteur contrôlant la faisabilité économique de l’HT-ATES est l’efficacité de la récupération. Du fait de l’effet de la gravité sur l’écoulement (convection libre), les systèmes d’HT-ATES appliqués à des aquifères perméables ont typiquement une efficacité de récupération plus faible que les systèmes ATES conventionnels (basse température). Pour une estimation fiable de l’efficacité de récupération, il est donc important de prendre en compte l’effet d’écoulement gravifique. Une évaluation numérique des principaux facteurs influençant l’efficacité de récupération des systèmes HT-ATES est présentée. Des simulations de sensibilité évaluant les effets des propriétés de l’aquifère, ainsi que l’incidence des variables opérationnelles, ont été réalisées pour en déduire les facteurs les plus importants qui contrôlent l’efficacité de la récupération. Une corrélation a été trouvée entre le nombre adimensionnel de Rayleigh (une mesure de l’intensité relative de la convection libre) et l’efficacité de récupération calculée. Sur la base d’un nombre de Rayleigh modifié, deux solutions analytiques simples sont proposées pour calculer l’efficacité de la récupération, chacune d’entre elles couvrant une gamme différente d’épaisseurs de l’aquifère. Les solutions analytiques reproduisent précisément tous les scénarios modélisés numériquement avec une erreur moyenne de moins de 3 %. La méthode proposée peut être d’un intérêt pratique pour envisager ou concevoir un système HT-ATES.

Análisis de la eficiencia de recuperación del almacenamiento de energía térmica en un acuífero de alta temperatura: un método basado en Rayleigh

Resumen

El almacenamiento de energía térmica en un acuífero de alta temperatura (HT-ATES) es una técnica para la conservación de energía. Un factor que controla la factibilidad económica de HT-ATES es la eficiencia de recuperación. Debido a los efectos del flujo de densidad forzada (convección libre), los sistemas HT-ATES aplicados en acuíferos permeables tienen típicamente más baja eficiencia de recuperación que los convencionales (bajas temperaturas) sistemas ATES. Para una estimación confiable de la eficiencia de recuperación es, por lo tanto, importante tomar en cuenta el efecto del flujo de densidad forzada. Se presenta una evaluación numérica de los factores principales que influyen en la eficiencia de recuperación de los sistemas HT-ATES. Se llevaron a cabo las corridas de sensibilidad para evaluar los efectos de las propiedades del acuífero, así como de las variables operacionales, para deducir los factores más importantes que controlan la eficiencia de recuperación. Se encontró una correlación entre el número adimensional de Rayleigh (una medida de la fuerza relativa de la convección libre) y las eficiencias calculadas de recuperación. Basado en un número de Rayleigh modificado, se proponen dos soluciones analíticas simples para calcular la eficiencia de recuperación, cada una de ellas cubriendo un rango diferente de espesor de acuífero. Las soluciones analíticas reproducen precisamente todos los escenarios modelados numéricamente con un error promedio de menos que 3 %. El método propuesto puede ser de un uso práctico al considerar o diseñar un sistema HT-ATES.

高温含水层热能储回收效率分析:基于 Rayleigh 的方法

摘要

高温含水层热能储是能源保存的一项重要技术。高温含水层热能储经济可能性一个控制因素就是回收效率。由于受密度驱动水流(自由对流)的影响,在典型透水含水层应用的高温含水层热能储系统回收效率比常规(地温)含水层热能储要低。为了估算可靠的回收效率,因此,必须要考虑受密度驱动水流的影响。对影响高温含水层热能储回收效率的主要因素进行了数值评估。通过评估含水层特性影响的灵敏度以及操作变量,可以推断出控制回收效率的最重要因素。发现无量Rayleigh数(自由对流相对强势的测量数)和计算的回收效率之间 存在相互关系。根据修正的Rayleigh数,提出了两个简单的解析方法,计算回收效率,每个方法涵盖不同范围的含水层厚度。解析方法精确地再现所有数值模拟方案,平均误差小于3%。提出的方法在考虑或设计高温含水层热能储时非常实用。

Análise da eficácia de recuperação no armazenamento de energia térmica de alta temperatura em aquíferos: um método baseado na abordagem Rayleigh

Resumo

O armazenamento de energia térmica de alta temperatura em aquíferos (HT-ATES) é uma técnica importante para a conservação de energia. Um fator de controlo para a viabilidade económica do HT-ATES é a eficiência de recuperação. Devido aos efeitos da densidade motivados pelo fluxo (conveção livre), os sistemas HT-ATES aplicados em aquíferos permeáveis têm normalmente eficiências de recuperação inferiores aos sistemas convencionais ATES (baixa temperatura). Para obter uma estimativa fiável da eficiência de recuperação, é importante considerar o efeito da densidade induzido pelo fator fluxo. É apresentada uma avaliação numérica dos principais fatores que influenciam a eficiência de recuperação de sistemas de HT-ATES. Foram realizadas análises de sensibilidade para avaliar os efeitos das propriedades do aquífero, assim como das variáveis operacionais, para inferir os fatores mais importantes que controlam a eficiência de recuperação. Foi encontrada uma correlação entre o número de Rayleigh adimensional (uma medida da força relativa de conveção livre) e as eficiências de recuperação calculadas. Com base num número de Rayleigh modificado, são propostas duas soluções analíticas simples para calcular a eficiência de recuperação, cada uma cobrindo uma gama de diferentes espessuras do aquífero. As soluções analíticas reproduzem com precisão numérica todos os cenários modelados com uma média de erro inferior a 3 %. O método proposto pode ser de uso prático, quando se pretende projetar um sistema HT-ATES.

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the Dutch Foundation on Soil Knowledge Development and Transfer (SKB) for funding this research, Thomas Buscheck for making available his valuable thesis and Christine Doughty and Jörn Bartels for their critical reviews of our work.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gilian Schout
    • 1
  • Benno Drijver
    • 2
    Email author
  • Mariene Gutierrez-Neri
    • 3
  • Ruud Schotting
    • 1
  1. 1.Environmental Hydrogeology Group, Faculty of GeosciencesUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.IF TechnologyArnhemThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of Hydrology and Geo-Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Earth and Life SciencesVU University AmsterdamAmsterdamThe Netherlands

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