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Hydrogeology Journal

, Volume 19, Issue 2, pp 339–353 | Cite as

PaPRIKa: a method for estimating karst resource and source vulnerability—application to the Ouysse karst system (southwest France)

  • Konstantina Kavouri
  • Valérie PlagnesEmail author
  • Joël Tremoulet
  • Nathalie Dörfliger
  • Fayçal Rejiba
  • Pierre Marchet
Report

Abstract

The intrinsic vulnerability mapping method, PaPRIKa, is proposed as a common basis for karst groundwater protection in France. PaPRIKa is a specialized method for studying karst aquifers, derived from updating the RISKE and EPIK methods. Both the structure and functioning of karst aquifers are considered in order to develop a resource and source-vulnerability mapping method. PaPRIKa means Protection of aquifers from the assessment of four criteria: P for protection (considering the most protective aspects among parameters related to soil cover, unsaturated zone and epikarst behavior), R for rock type, I for infiltration and Ka for karstification degree. The Ouysse karst system, located in the Causses area in southwest France, is one of the nine pilot sites where this method was tested and standardized. The specificities of the Ouysse system such as the size of the catchment area, the spatial variability of the karst network development, the thick infiltration zone and the system’s dual character (both karst and non-karst areas), have provided a valuable field of application. The vulnerability of the resource was assessed for the entire catchment area, while source-orientated cartography was attempted for the catchment areas of the three different capture works used for drinking water.

Keywords

Vulnerability mapping Groundwater protection Karst PaPRIKa method France 

PaPRIKa : une méthode d’ valuation de la vulnérabilité de la ressource et des captages—application au systéme karstique de l’Ouysse (Sud-Ouest de la France)

Résumé

PaPRIKa est la méthode de cartographie de la vulnérabilité intrinsèque des karsts qui est aujourd’hui préconisée comme un outil commun aux hydrogéologues en charge de la protection de la ressource en eau karstique en France. PaPRIKa correspond à la version la plus récente et la plus complète dérivée d’autres méthodes spécifiques aux aquifères karstiques (RISKE et EPIK). Elle a été développée dans l’objectif de cartographier aussi bien la vulnérabilité de la ressource que de la source, en prenant en considération des critères caractérisant à la fois la structure et le fonctionnement des karsts. Cette méthode permet d’évaluer la Protection des aquifères à partir de quatre critères: P pour protection (correspond au critère le plus protecteur entre le Sol, la zone non saturée et l’aquifère épikarstique), R pour réservoir aquifère, I pour infiltration et Ka pour développement de la Karstification. Le système karstique de l’Ouysse, localisé dans les Causses du Quercy (Sud-Ouest de la France), est l’un des neuf sites pilotes sur lesquels cette méthode a été testée et standardisée. Les particularités de ce système, telles que la grande extension de son bassin d’alimentation, la forte variation spatiale du degré de développement du réseau karstique, l’épaisse zone d’infiltration et le caractère binaire de ce système, en ont fait un site d’application particulièrement intéressant. La vulnérabilité de la ressource a été cartographiée pour l’ensemble du bassin d’alimentation, tandis que la vulnérabilité de la source a été établie pour les sous-bassins constituant les zones d’alimentation des trois captages utilisés pour l’eau potable.

PaPRIKa: un método para estimar el recurso kárstico y la vulnerabilidad de la fuente—aplicación al sistema kárstico Ouysse (sudoeste de Francia)

Resumen

Se propone el método de mapeo de la vulnerabilidad intrínseca, PaPRIKa, como una base común para la protección del agua subterránea kársticas en Francia. El PaPRIKa es un método especializado para estudiar acuíferos kársticos, derivado de una actualización de los métodos RISKE y EPIK. Se considera tanto la estructura como el funcionamiento de los acuíferos kársticos con el objeto de desarrollar un método de mapeo del recurso y de la vulnerabilidad de la fuente. PaPRIKa significa Protección de los acuíferos a partir de la evaluación de cuatro criterios: P por la protección (considerando los aspectos más protectivos entre los parámetros relacionados a la cubierta del suelo, zona no saturada y comportamiento epikárstico), R por el tipo de roca, I por la infiltración y Ka por el grado de kartificación. El sistema kárstico de Ouysse, localizado en el área de Causses en el sudoeste de Francia, es uno de los nueve sitios pilotos donde este método fue probado y estandarizado. Las especificidades del sistema Ouysse, tales como el tamaño del área de la cuenca, la variabilidad espacial de la red de drenaje desarrollada en el karst, el espesor de la zona de infiltración y el carácter dual del sistema, (tanto para áreas kársticas como no kársticas) han provisto un valioso campo de aplicación. Se evaluó la vulnerabilidad del recurso para la totalidad del área de la cuenca, mientras que se encaró la cartografía orientada hacia las fuentes para las áreas de las cuencas de las tres diferentes estructuras de captura usadas para agua potable.

PaPRIKa: um método para estimar os recursos e a vulnerabilidade na origem em zonas cársicas—aplicação ao sistema cársico de Ouysse (sudoeste de França)

Resumo

O método de caracterização da vulnerabilidade intrínseca PaPRIKa foi proposto como método de referência comum para a protecção de sistemas cársicos em França. PaPRIKa é um método especializado para o estudo de aquíferos cársicos, constituindo uma actualização dos métodos RISKE e EPIK. Para o desenvolvimento deste método de avaliação e mapeamento da vulnerabilidade do recurso e das origens foram considerados tanto a estrutura como o funcionamento dos aquíferos cársicos. PaPRIKa significa Protecção de aquíferos com base na caracterização de quatro parâmetros: P para protecção (considerando os aspectos relevantes dos parâmetros relacionados com a cobertura do solo, com a zona não-saturada e com o comportamento epicársico), R para o tipo de rocha, I para a infiltração e Ka para o grau de carsificação. O sistema cársico de Ouysse, localizado na região de Causses, no sudoeste de França, é uma das nove áreas piloto onde o método foi testado e padronizado. As especificidades do sistema de Ouysse, tais como a dimensão da área de recarga, a variabilidade espacial do desenvolvimento da rede cársica, a espessura da zona de infiltração e o carácter dual do sistema (tanto áreas cársicas como não-cársicas), facultaram um campo de aplicação que se considera adequado. A vulnerabilidade dos recursos foi calculada para toda a área de recarga. A cartografia, orientada para as fontes, foi desenvolvida para cada uma das áreas de recarga das três diferentes zonas de captação para abastecimento de água potável.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work is a contribution to the project co-funded by ONEMA, BRGM, the two water agencies Adour-Garonne and Rhône-Méditerranée and Corse, the Natural regional Parc of Quercy (PnrQ) and Pierre and Marie Curie University-Paris 6 within the framework of public activities for the Environment Ministry. The authors would like to thank J. Pranville, J. Ricard, A. Tarrisse, C. Delporte and A. Baro for their active contribution. The members of the working group are also thanked—L. Cadilhac (AERM&C), D. Humbert (AESN), Ph. Muet (Ginger Environment), Ph. Crochet (ANTEA), P-Henri Mondain (CALLIGEE)—for their comments and suggestions to improve the method.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Konstantina Kavouri
    • 1
  • Valérie Plagnes
    • 1
    Email author
  • Joël Tremoulet
    • 2
  • Nathalie Dörfliger
    • 3
  • Fayçal Rejiba
    • 1
  • Pierre Marchet
    • 4
  1. 1.UMR 7619 SisypheUniversité Pierre et Marie CurieParis Cedex 05France
  2. 2.PnrQC, Parc naturel régional des Causses du QuercyLabastide-MuratFrance
  3. 3.BRGM, Water divisionRMD UnityMontpellierFrance
  4. 4.Agence de l’Eau Adour-GaronneToulouse Cedex 4France

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