Hydrogeology Journal

, Volume 14, Issue 1–2, pp 203–224 | Cite as

Recharge areas and geochemical evolution of groundwater in an alluvial aquifer system in the Sultanate of Oman

  • Juerg M. Matter
  • H. N. Waber
  • S. Loew
  • A. Matter
Report

Abstract

A regional hydrogeochemical model was developed to evaluate the geochemical evolution of different groundwaters in an alluvial aquifer system in the Interior of Oman. In combination with environmental isotopes the model is able to extract qualitative and quantitative information about recharge, groundwater flow paths and hydraulic connections between different aquifers. The main source of water to the alluvial aquifer along the flow paths of Wadi Abyadh and Wadi M’uaydin in the piedmont is groundwater from the high-altitude areas of the Jabal Akhdar and local infiltration along the wadi channels. In contrast, the piedmont alluvial aquifer along Wadi Halfayn is primarily replenished by lateral recharge from the ophiolite foothills to the east besides smaller contributions from the Jabal Akhdar and local infiltration. Further down gradient in the Southern Alluvial Plain aquifer a significant source of recharge is direct infiltration of rain and surface runoff, originating from a moisture source that approaches Oman from the south. The model shows that the main geochemical evolution of the alluvial groundwaters occurs along the flow path from the piedmont to the Southern Alluvial Plain, where dedolomitization is responsible for the observed changes in the chemical and carbon isotope composition in these waters.

Keywords

Arid regions Groundwater flow Groundwater recharge Hydrochemical modeling Stable isotopes 

Résumé

On a développé un modèle régional hydrogéochimique pour évaluer l’évolution géochimique des différentes eaux souterraines dans le système aquifère de l’intérieur d’Oman. Avec la contribution des isotopes d’environnement, le modèle est capable de fournir des informations qualitatives et quantitatives sur la recharge, les directions d’écoulement et sur les connections hydrauliques entre les différents aquifères du système. La source principale pour l’aquifère situé au long de la direction d’écoulement des oueds de Abdyah et de M’uaydin dans le piémont est l’eau souterraine provenant des zones de haute altitude de Jabal Akhbar ainsi que l’infiltration locale au long des canaux de l’oued. Par contre, à part d’une petite contribution provenant des infiltrations locaux et de Jabal Akhbar, l’ aquifère alluvial de Wadi Halfayan est en principal alimenté par la recharge latérale provenant des ophiolites situées dans la partie est. Les plus importantes sources de recharge dans l’aval de l’aquifère de la Plaine Alluviale sont l’infiltration directe et le ruissellement provenant d’une source d’humidité qui s’approche d’Oman par le sud. Le modèle montre que la principale évolution géochimique se produise au long de la direction d’écoulement qui part de piémont de la Plaine Alluviale du Sud, où le procès de dédolomisation est responsable pour les changements observés dans la composition géochimique et en carbone des eaux.

Resumen

Un modelo hidrogeoquímico regional fue desarrollado, para evaluar la evolución geoquímica de diferentes aguas subterráneas en un sistema acuífero aluvial ubicado en el interior de Omán. El modelo, en combinación con isótopos ambientales, es capaz de obtener información cualitativa y cuantitativa sobre recarga, direcciones de flujo de agua subterránea y sobre las conexiones hidráulicas entre diferentes acuíferos. La fuente principal de agua para el acuífero aluvial en el piedemonte son las aguas subterráneas, a lo largo de las direcciones de flujo del Wadi Abyadh y del Wadi M’uaydin, desde las áreas de gran altura de Jabal Akhdar y como infiltración local a lo largo de los canales del wadi. En contraste, el acuífero aluvial del piedemonte a lo largo del Wadi Halfayn, esta alimentado principalmente por recarga lateral desde las partes bajas de las montañas de ofiolitas hacia el Este, además por pequeñas contribuciones desde el Jabal Akhdar e infiltración local. Siguiendo gradiente abajo en el acuífero de la Llanura Aluvial del Sur, allí tanto la infiltración directa de lluvia, como la escorrentía superficial constituyen fuentes significativas de recarga, las cuales se originan en una fuente de humedad que llega a Omán proveniente del Sur. El modelo muestra, que la evolución geoquímica principal de las aguas subterráneas en el aluvión, sucede a lo largo de la dirección de flujo, que va desde el piedemonte hacia la Llanura Aluvial Sur, en donde el proceso de des-dolomitización es el responsable de los cambios observados en la composición química y también del contenido de isótopos de carbono en estas aguas.

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank the Ministry of Regional Municipalities Environment and Water Resources in the Sultanate of Oman for their permission to do this field work, for their logistic and scientific support and for the chemical analyses of all water samples. We are deeply grateful to Zaher Al Suleimani, Director General of Groundwater Resources, Ahmed Al Malki, Acting Director of Research and Suleiman Al Abri, former Director of the Ministry of Water Resources Regional Office Nizwa for their assistance during this project. We also thank several people, namely Hashim Al Balushi, Salim Al Ma’shari and Sidney Da Silva from the Ministry of Water Resources for their assistance in the field. The authors are grateful to Phil Macumber and an anonymous reviewer for the constructive reviews

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juerg M. Matter
    • 1
    • 2
  • H. N. Waber
    • 3
  • S. Loew
    • 1
  • A. Matter
    • 3
  1. 1.Geological Institute ETH Zuerich, Engineering GeologyETH HoenggerbergZuerichSwitzerland
  2. 2.Present address: Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia UniversityPalisadesUSA
  3. 3.Institute of Geological SciencesUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland

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