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Hydrogeology Journal

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 98–111 | Cite as

Aquifers and hyporheic zones: Towards an ecological understanding of groundwater

  • Peter J. HancockEmail author
  • Andrew J. Boulton
  • William F. Humphreys
Paper

Abstract

Ecological constraints in subsurface environments relate directly to groundwater flow, hydraulic conductivity, interstitial biogeochemistry, pore size, and hydrological linkages to adjacent aquifers and surface ecosystems. Groundwater ecology has evolved from a science describing the unique subterranean biota to its current form emphasising multidisciplinary studies that integrate hydrogeology and ecology. This multidisciplinary approach seeks to elucidate the function of groundwater ecosystems and their roles in maintaining subterranean and surface water quality. In aquifer-surface water ecotones, geochemical gradients and microbial biofilms mediate transformations of water chemistry. Subsurface fauna (stygofauna) graze biofilms, alter interstitial pore size through their movement, and physically transport material through the groundwater environment. Further, changes in their populations provide signals of declining water quality. Better integrating groundwater ecology, biogeochemistry, and hydrogeology will significantly advance our understanding of subterranean ecosystems, especially in terms of bioremediation of contaminated groundwaters, maintenance or improvement of surface water quality in groundwater-dependent ecosystems, and improved protection of groundwater habitats during the extraction of natural resources. Overall, this will lead to a better understanding of the implications of groundwater hydrology and aquifer geology to distributions of subsurface fauna and microbiota, ecological processes such as carbon cycling, and sustainable groundwater management.

Keywords

Stygofauna Hyporheic zone Aquifer ecosystems Groundwater/surface-water interactions Human impacts 

Résumé

Les contraintes écologiques dans les environnements de subsurface sont en relation directe avec les écoulements des eaux souterraines, la conductivité hydraulique, la biogéochimie des milieux interstitiels, la taille des pores, et les liens hydrologiques avec les aquifères et les écosystèmes adjacents. L’écologie des eaux souterraines a évolué d’une science décrivant uniquement les biotopes souterrains à des études multidisciplinaires qui intègrent l’écologie et l’hydrogéologie. L’approche multidisciplinaire cherche à élucider le fonctionnement des écosystèmes souterrains et leur rôle consistant à maintenir la qualité des eaux souterraines et de surface. Dans les écotones des eaux de la surfaces des aquifères, les gradients géochimiques et les biofilms microbiologiques contrôlent les transformations de la qualité de l’eau. La faune de subsurface (stygofauna) construisent les biofilms, altèrent la taille des pores interstitiels à travers leur mouvement, et transportent physiquement des matériaux à travers l’environnement des eaux souterraines. Par ailleurs, les changements de leur population signalent un déclin de la qualité de l’eau.

Une meilleure intégration de l’écologie des eaux souterraines, de la biogeochimie, et de l’hydrogéologie pourra faire avancer de manière efficace de notre compréhension des écosystèmes souterrains, et spécialement en terme de bioremédiation des eaux souterraines contaminées, de maintenance et d’amélioration de la qualité des eaux de surface dépendant des écosystèmes souterrains, et l’amélioration de la protection des habitats des eaux souterraines durant l’extraction des ressources naturelles. En général, cela conduira à une meilleure compréhension de l’implication de l’hydrogéologie et de la géologie des aquifères à la distribution de la faune de subsurface et aux microbiota, aux processus écologiques tels que les cycles du carbone, et la gestion durable des eaux souterraines.

Resumen

Los entornos ecológicos en ambientes subsuperficiales están relacionados directamente con el flujo de agua subterránea, la conductividad hidráulica, biogeoquímica intersticial, tamaño de los poros, y vínculos hidrológicos con acuíferos adyacentes y ecosistemas superficiales. La ecología del agua subterránea ha evolucionado a partir de una ciencia que describe la biota subterránea única hasta alcanzar la forma actual que enfatiza estudios multidisciplinarios que integran hidrogeología y ecología. Este enfoque multidisciplinario busca clarificar la función de los ecosistemas de agua subterránea y sus roles en el mantenimiento de la calidad de agua superficial y subterránea. En ecotonos de agua superficial y de acuíferos, los gradientes geoquímicos y biopelículas microbiales median transformaciones de calidad de agua. La fauna subsuperficial (estigofauna) se alimenta de biopeliculas, altera el tamaño de los poros intersticiales mediante su movimiento, y transporta físicamente material a través del ambiente de aguas subterráneas. Además, los cambios en sus poblaciones aportan señales de decadencia de calidad de agua. La mejor integración de ecología de aguas subterráneas, biogeoquímica, e hidrogeología incrementará significativamente nuestro entendimiento de ecosistemas subterráneos, especialmente en términos de bioremediación de aguas subterráneas contaminadas, mantenimiento o mejoramiento de calidad de agua superficial en ecosistemas dependientes de agua subterránea, y protección mejorada de habitats de agua subterránea durante la extracción de recursos naturales. Sobretodo, esto conducirá a un mejor entendimiento de las implicaciones de la hidrología de aguas subterráneas y geología del acuífero, de las distribuciones de fauna subsuperficial y microbiota, procesos ecológicos tal como ciclado de carbono, y gestión sostenible de aguas subterráneas.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The invitation by Dr Clifford Voss to present a perspective on the role of groundwater ecology in the future of hydrogeology, and his comments, advice and constructive criticism of this manuscript are appreciated. Marc Seifert, Dr Paul Frazier, and three referees (including Prof. Janine Gibert and Dr Carol Wicks) are thanked for encouraging and perspicacious comments on earlier drafts. Robert Schneider provided editorial advice. Part of this work was done while the senior author was in receipt of a postdoctoral fellowship funded by ECOWISE Environmental at the University of New England.

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Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter J. Hancock
    • 1
    Email author
  • Andrew J. Boulton
    • 1
  • William F. Humphreys
    • 2
  1. 1.Ecosystem ManagementUniversity of New EnglandArmidaleAustralia
  2. 2.Western Australian MuseumFrancis St.PerthAustralia

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