Y-chromosome haplogroup N dispersals from south Siberia to Europe
- 44 Downloads
In order to reconstruct the history of Y-chromosome haplogroup (hg) N dispersals in north Eurasia, we have analyzed the diversity of microsatellite (STR) loci within two major hg N clades, N2 and N3, in a total sample of 1,438 males from 17 ethnic groups, mainly of Siberian and Eastern European origin. Based on STR variance analysis we observed that hg N3a is more diverse in Eastern Europe than in south Siberia. However, analysis of median networks showed that there are two STR subclusters of hg N3a, N3a1 and N3a2, that are characterized by different genetic histories. Age calculation of STR variation within subcluster N3a1 indicated that its first expansion occurred in south Siberia [approximately 10,000 years (ky)] and then this subcluster spread into Eastern Europe where its age is around 8 ky ago. Meanwhile, younger subcluster N3a2 originated in south Siberia (probably in the Baikal region) approximately 4 ky ago. Median network and variance analyses of STR haplotypes suggest that south Siberian N3a2 haplotypes spread further into Volga-Ural region undergoing serial bottlenecks. In addition, median network analysis of STR data demonstrates that haplogroup N2-A is represented by two subclusters, showing recent expansion times. The data obtained allow us to suggest Siberian origin of haplogroups N3 and N2 that are currently widespread in some populations of Eastern Europe.
KeywordsY-chromosome Haplogroup STR Phylogeography North Eurasia
We are grateful to all the voluntary donors of DNA samples used in this study and to C. Dorzhu for Tuvinian samples, F. Luzina for Altaian and Shor samples, H. Lee for Korean samples, T. Tsedev for Mongolian samples, and J. Rostamzadeh for Persian and Kurd samples. We thank A. Jakubowska and M. Perkova for technical assistance. This study was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research grants 06-04-48136 (to B.M.), 07-04-00445 (to M.D.), Polish State Committee for Scientific Research grant 3P04C 04823 (to T.G.), Far-East Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences grant 06-3-B-06-216 (to G.D.), and Program of Basic Research of Russian Academy of Sciences “Biodiversity and Dynamics of Gene Pools” (to B.M.).
- Rootsi S, Zhivotovsky LA, Baldovic M, Kayser M, Kutuev IA, Khusainova R, Bermisheva MA, Gubina M, Fedorova SA, Ilumae AM, Khusnutdinova EK, Voevoda MI, Osipova LP, Stoneking M, Lin AA, Ferak V, Parik J, Kivisild T, Underhill PA, Villems R (2007) A counter-clockwise northern route of the Y-chromosome haplogroup N from Southeast Asia towards Europe. Eur J Hum Genet 15:204–211PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rosser ZH, Zerjal T, Hurles ME, Adojaan M, Alavantic D, Amorim A, Amos W, Armenteros M, Arroyo E, Barbujani G, Beckman G, Beckman L, Bertranpetit J, Bosch E, Bradley DG, Brede G, Cooper G, Côrte-Real HBSM, Knijff P, Decorte R, Dubrova YE, Evgrafov O, Gilissen A, Glisic S, Gölge M, Hill E, Jeziorowska A, Kalaydjieva L, Kayser M, Kivisild T, Kravchenco SA, Krumina A, Kučinskas V, Lavinha J, Livshits LA, Malaspina P, Maria S, McElreavey K, Meitinger TA, Mikelsaar AV, Mitchell RJ, Nafa K, Nicholson J, Nørby S, Pandya A, Parik J, Patsalis PC, Pereira L, Peterlin B, Pielberg G, Prata MJ, Previderé C, Roewer L, Rootsi S, Rubinsztein DC, Saillard J, Santos FR, Stefanescu G, Sykes BC, Tolun A, Villems R, Tyler-Smith C, Jobling MA (2000) Y-chromosomal diversity in Europe is clinal and influenced primarily by geography, rather than by language. Am J Hum Genet 67:1526–1543PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sengupta S, Zhivotovsky LA, King R, Mehdi SQ, Edmonds CA, Chow CE, Lin AA, Mitra M, Sil SK, Ramesh A, Usha Rani MV, Thakur CM, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Majumder PP, Underhill PA (2006) Polarity and temporality of high-resolution Y-chromosome distributions in India identify both indigenous and exogenous expansions and reveal minor genetic influence of central Asian pastoralists. Am J Hum Genet 78:202–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Underhill PA, Shen P, Lin AA, Jin L, Passarino G, Yang WH, Kauffman E, Bonne-Tamir B, Bertranpetit J, Francalacci P, Ibrahim M, Jenkins T, Kidd JR, Mehdi SQ, Seielstad MT, Wells RS, Piazza A, Davis RW, Feldman MW, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Oefner PJ (2000) Y chromosome sequence variation and the history of human populations. Nat Genet 26:358–361PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Villems R, Rootsi S, Tambets K, Adojaan M, Orekhov V, Khusnutdinova E, Yankovsky N (2002) Archaeogenetics of Finno-Ugric-speaking populations. In: Julku K (ed) The roots of peoples and languages of the Northern Eurasia IV. Societas Historiae Fenno-Ugricae, Oulu pp 271–284Google Scholar
- Zerjal T, Dashnyam B, Pandya A, Kayser M, Roewer L, Santos FR, Schiefenhovel W, Fretwell N, Jobling MA, Harihara S, Shimizu K, Semjidmaa D, Sajantila A, Salo P, Crawford MH, Ginter EK, Evgrafov OV, Tyler-Smith C (1997) Genetic relationships of Asians and Northern Europeans, revealed by Y-chromosomal DNA analysis. Am J Hum Genet 60:1174–1183PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhivotovsky LA, Underhill PA, Cinnioglu C, Kayser M, Morar B, Kivisild T, Scozzari R, Cruciani F, Destro-Bisol G, Spedini G, Chambers GK, Herrera RJ, Yong KK, Gresham D, Tournev I, Feldman MW, Kalaydjieva L (2004) The effective mutation rate at Y chromosome short tandem repeats, with application to human population-divergence time. Am J Hum Genet 74:50–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar