Journal of Human Genetics

, Volume 52, Issue 5, pp 406–414 | Cite as

Y-STR variation among Slavs: evidence for the Slavic homeland in the middle Dnieper basin

  • Krzysztof Rębała
  • Alexei I. Mikulich
  • Iosif S. Tsybovsky
  • Daniela Siváková
  • Zuzana Džupinková
  • Aneta Szczerkowska-Dobosz
  • Zofia Szczerkowska
Original Article

Abstract

A set of 18 Y-chromosomal microsatellite loci was analysed in 568 males from Poland, Slovakia and three regions of Belarus. The results were compared to data available for 2,937 Y chromosome samples from 20 other Slavic populations. Lack of relationship between linguistic, geographic and historical relations between Slavic populations and Y-short tandem repeat (STR) haplotype distribution was observed. Two genetically distant groups of Slavic populations were revealed: one encompassing all Western-Slavic, Eastern-Slavic, and two Southern-Slavic populations, and one encompassing all remaining Southern Slavs. An analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) based on Y-chromosomal STRs showed that the variation observed between the two population groups was 4.3%, and was higher than the level of genetic variance among populations within the groups (1.2%). Homogeneity of northern Slavic paternal lineages in Europe was shown to stretch from the Alps to the upper Volga and involve ethnicities speaking completely different branches of Slavic languages. The central position of the population of Ukraine in the network of insignificant AMOVA comparisons, and the lack of traces of significant contribution of ancient tribes inhabiting present-day Poland to the gene pool of Eastern and Southern Slavs, support hypothesis placing the earliest known homeland of Slavs in the middle Dnieper basin.

Keywords

Y chromosome Microsatellites Slavic populations 

References

  1. Balloux F, Lugon-Moulin N (2002) The estimation of population differentiation with microsatellite markers. Mol Ecol 11:155–165PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Butler JM (2003) Recent developments in Y-short tandem repeat and Y-single nucleotide polymorphism analysis. Forensic Sci Rev 15:91–111Google Scholar
  3. Caglià A, Tofanelli S, Coia V, Boschi I, Pescarmona M, Spedini G, Pascali V, Paoli G, Destro-Bisol G (2003) A study of Y-chromosome microsatellite variation in sub-Saharan Africa: a comparison between FST and RST genetic distances. Hum Biol 75:313–330PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Das B, Chauhan PS, Seshadri M (2004) Minimal sharing of Y-chromosome STR haplotypes among five endogamous population groups from western and southwestern India. Hum Biol 76:743–763PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Destro-Bisol G, Spedini G, Pascali VL (2000) Application of different genetic distance methods to microsatellite data. Hum Genet 106:130–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Encyclopædia Britannica (2006) Slav in Encyclopædia Britannica Online (http://www.search.eb.com/eb/article-9068162)
  7. Excoffier L, Laval G, Schneider S (2005) Arlequin (version 3.0): an integrated software package for population genetics data analysis. Evol Bioinform Online 1:47–50Google Scholar
  8. Felsenstein J (2004) PHYLIP (Phylogeny Inference Package) version 3.6. Department of Genome Sciences, University of Washington, SeattleGoogle Scholar
  9. Grek-Pabisowa I (1968) Rosyjska gwara starowierców w województwach olsztyńskim i białostockim. Russian dialect of Old-Believers in the administrative regions of Olsztyn and Bialystok. Ossolineum, WroclawGoogle Scholar
  10. Immel U-D, Krawczak M, Udolph J, Richter A, Rodig H, Kleiber M, Klintschar M (2006) Y-chromosomal STR haplotype analysis reveals surname-associated strata in the East-German population. Eur J Hum Genet 14:577–582PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jobling MA, Tyler-Smith C (2003) The human Y chromosome: an evolutionary marker comes of age. Nat Rev Genet 4:598–612PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kasperavičiūtė D, Kučinskas V, Stoneking M (2004) Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA variation in Lithuanians. Ann Hum Genet 68:438–452PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kayser M, Krawczak M, Excoffier L, Dieltjes P, Corach D, Pascali V, Gehrig C, Bernini LF, Jespersen J, Bakker E, Roewer L, de Knijff P (2001) An extensive analysis of Y-chromosomal microsatellite haplotypes in globally dispersed human populations. Am J Hum Genet 68:990–1018PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kayser M, Lao O, Anslinger K, Augustin C, Bargel G, Edelmann J, Elias S, Heinrich M, Henke J, Henke L, Hohoff C, Illing A, Jonkisz A, Kuzniar P, Lebioda A, Lessig R, Lewicki S, Maciejewska A, Monies DM, Pawłowski R, Poetsch M, Schmid D, Schmidt U, Schneider PM, Stradmann-Bellinghausen B, Szibor R, Wegener R, Wozniak M, Zoledziewska M, Roewer L, Dobosz T, Ploski R (2005) Significant genetic differentiation between Poland and Germany follows present-day political borders, as revealed by Y-chromosome analysis. Hum Genet 117:428–443PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lauc LB, Peričić M, Klarić IM, Šijački A, Popović D, Janićijević B, Rudan P (2005) Y chromosome STR polymorphisms in a Serbian population sample. Forensic Sci Int 150:97–101PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lessig R, Edelmann J, Kleemann WJ, Kozhemyako V (2006) Population data of Y-chromosomal STRs in Russian males of the Primorye region population. Forensic Sci Int 159:71–76PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lovrečić L, Ristić S, Brajenović B, Kapović M, Peterlin B (2005) Human Y-specific STR haplotypes in the Western Croatian population sample. Forensic Sci Int 149:257–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Malyarchuk B, Derenko M, Grzybowski T, Lunkina A, Czarny J, Rychkov S, Morozova I, Denisova G, Miściska-Śliwka D (2004) Differentiation of mitochondrial DNA and Y chromosomes in Russian populations. Hum Biol 76:877–900PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Marjanovic D, Bakal N, Pojskic N, Kapur L, Drobnic K, Primorac D, Bajrovic K, Hadziselimovic R (2005) Population data for the twelve Y-chromosome short tandem repeat loci from the sample of multinational population in Bosnia and Herzegovina. J Forensic Sci 50:223–225PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Pepinski W, Niemcunowicz-Janica A, Skawronska M, Koc-Zorawska E, Janica J, Soltyszewski I (2004a) Y-chromosome STR haplotypes in a population sample of the Byelorussian minority living in the northeastern Poland. Forensic Sci Int 140:117–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Pepinski W, Niemcunowicz-Janica A, Skawronska M, Koc-Zorawska E, Janica J, Soltyszewski I (2004b) Y-chromosome STR haplotypes and alleles in the population sample of Old Believers residing in the Northeastern Poland. Forensic Sci Int 143:65–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pérez-Lezaun A, Calafell F, Mateu E, Comas D, Ruiz-Pacheco R, Bertranpetit J (1997) Microsatellite variation and the differentiation of modern humans. Hum Genet 99:1–7PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Peričić M, Klarić IM, Lauc LB, Janićijević B, Đorđević D, Efremovska L, Rudan P (2005) Population genetics of 8 Y chromosome STR loci in Macedonians and Macedonian Romani (Gypsy). Forensic Sci Int 154:257–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ploski R, Wozniak M, Pawlowski R, Monies DM, Branicki W, Kupiec T, Kloosterman A, Dobosz T, Bosch E, Nowak M, Lessig R, Jobling MA, Roewer L, Kayser M (2002) Homogeneity and distinctiveness of Polish paternal lineages revealed by Y chromosome microsatellite haplotype analysis. Hum Genet 110:592–600PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rębała K, Szczerkowska Z (2005) Polish population study on Y chromosome haplotypes defined by 18 STR loci. Int J Legal Med 119:303–305PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rodig H, Grum M, Grimmecke H-D (2007) Population study and evaluation of 20 Y-chromosome STR loci in Germans. Int J Legal Med 121:24–27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Roewer L, Kayser M, Dieltjes P, Nagy M, Bakker E, Krawczak M, de Knijff P (1996) Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of Y-chromosome-specific microsatellites in two closely related human populations. Hum Mol Genet 5:1029–1033PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Roewer L, Krawczak M, Willuweit S, Nagy M, Alves C, Amorim A, Anslinger K, Augustin C, Betz A, Bosch E, Cagliá A, Carracedo A, Corach D, Dekairelle A-F, Dobosz T, Dupuy BM, Füredi S, Gehrig C, Gusmaõ L, Henke J, Henke L, Hidding M, Hohoff C, Hoste B, Jobling MA, Kärgel HJ, de Knijff P, Lessig R, Liebeherr E, Lorente M, Martínez-Jarreta B, Nievas P, Nowak M, Parson W, Pascali VL, Penacino G, Ploski R, Rolf B, Sala A, Schmidt U, Schmitt C, Schneider PM, Szibor R, Teifel-Greding J, Kayser M (2001) Online reference database of European Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (STR) haplotypes. Forensic Sci Int 118:106–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Roewer L, Croucher PJP, Willuweit S, Lu TT, Kayser M, Lessig R, de Knijff P, Jobling MA, Tyler-Smith C, Krawczak M (2005) Signature of recent historical events in the European Y-chromosomal STR haplotype distribution. Hum Genet 116:279–291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Rolf B, Meyer E, Brinkmann B, de Knijff P (1998) Polymorphism at the tetranucleotide repeat locus DYS389 in 10 populations reveals strong geographic clustering. Eur J Hum Genet 6:583–588PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Rootsi S, Magri C, Kivisild T, Benuzzi G, Help H, Bermisheva M, Kutuev I, Barać L, Peričić M, Balanovsky O, Pshenichnov A, Dion D, Grobei M, Zhivotovsky LA, Battaglia V, Achilli A, Al-Zahery N, Parik J, King R, Cinnioğlu C, Khusnutdinova E, Rudan R, Balanovska E, Scheffrahn W, Simonescu M, Brehm A, Goncalves R, Rosa A, Moisan J-P, Chaventre A, Ferak V, Füredi S, Oefner PJ, Shen P, Beckman L, Mikerezi I, Terzić R, Primorac D, Cambon-Thomsen A, Krumina A, Torroni A, Underhill PA, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Villems R, Semino O (2004) Phylogeography of Y-chromosome haplogroup I reveals distinct domains of prehistoric gene flow in Europe. Am J Hum Genet 75:128–137PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Rosser ZH, Zerjal T, Hurles ME, Adojaan M, Alavantic D, Amorim A, Amos W, Armenteros M, Arroyo E, Barbujani G, Beckman G, Beckman L, Bertranpetit J, Bosch E, Bradley DG, Brede G, Cooper G, Corte-Real HB, de Knijff P, Decorte R, Dubrova YE, Evgrafov O, Gilissen A, Glisic S, Golge M, Hill EW, Jeziorowska A, Kalaydjieva L, Kayser M, Kivisild T, Kravchenko SA, Krumina A, Kucinskas V, Lavinha J, Livshits LA, Malaspina P, Maria S, McElreavey K, Meitinger TA, Mikelsaar AV, Mitchell RJ, Nafa K, Nicholson J, Norby S, Pandya A, Parik J, Patsalis PC, Pereira L, Peterlin B, Pielberg G, Prata MJ, Previdere C, Roewer L, Rootsi S, Rubinsztein DC, Saillard J, Santos FR, Stefanescu G, Sykes BC, Tolun A, Villems R, Tyler-Smith C, Jobling MA (2000) Y-chromosomal diversity in Europe is clinal and influenced primarily by geography rather then by language. Am J Hum Genet 67:1526–1543PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Rybakowski JK, Borkowska A, Czerski PM, Hauser J (2002) Eye movement disturbances in schizophrenia and a polymorphism of catechol-O-methyltransferase gene. Psychiatry Res 113:49–57PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Schenker AM (1995) The dawn of Slavic: an introduction to Slavic philology. Yale University Press, New HavenGoogle Scholar
  35. Sedov VV (1970) Slavâne Verhnego Podneprov’â i Podvin’â. The Slavs of the basin of the upper Dnieper and Western Dvina. Nauka, MoscowGoogle Scholar
  36. Semino O, Passarino G, Oefner PJ, Lin AA, Arbuzova S, Beckman LE, De Benedictis G, Francalacci P, Kouvatsi A, Limborska S, Marcikiæ M, Mika A, Mika B, Primorac D, Santachiara-Benerecetti AS, Cavalli-Sforza LL, Underhill PA (2000) The genetic legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in extant Europeans: a Y chromosome perspective. Science 290:1155–1159PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Slatkin M (1995) A measure of population subdivision based on microsatellite allele frequencies. Genetics 139:457–462PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Spiroski M, Arsov T, Krüger C, Willuweit S, Roewer L (2005) Y-chromosomal STR haplotypes in Macedonian population samples. Forensic Sci Int 148:69–73PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Weale ME, Yepiskoposyan L, Jager RF, Hovhannisyan N, Khudoyan A, Burbage-Hall O, Bradman N, Thomas MG (2001) Armenian Y chromosome haplotypes reveal strong regional structure within a single ethno-national group. Hum Genet 109:659–674PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Weale ME, Weiss DA, Jager RF, Bradman N, Thomas MG (2002) Y chromosome evidence for Anglo-Saxon mass migration. Mol Biol Evol 19:1008–1021PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Wiśniewski J (1964) Rozwój osadnictwa na pograniczu polsko-rusko-litewskim od końca XIV do połowy XVII wieku. Development of the settlement in the Polish–Ruthenian–Lithuanian borderland from the end of the 14th century to the middle of the 17th century. Acta Balt Slav 1:115–136Google Scholar
  42. Zerjal T, Beckman L, Beckman G, Mikelsaar A-V, Krumina A, Kučinskas V, Hurles ME, Tyler-Smith C (2001) Geographical, linguistic and cultural influences on genetic diversity: Y-chromosomal distribution in Northern European populations. Mol Biol Evol 18:1077–1087PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Japan Society of Human Genetics and Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Krzysztof Rębała
    • 1
  • Alexei I. Mikulich
    • 2
  • Iosif S. Tsybovsky
    • 3
  • Daniela Siváková
    • 4
  • Zuzana Džupinková
    • 5
  • Aneta Szczerkowska-Dobosz
    • 6
  • Zofia Szczerkowska
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Forensic MedicineMedical University of GdanskGdanskPoland
  2. 2.Institute for the Study of Arts, Ethnography and FolkloreNational Academy of SciencesMinskBelarus
  3. 3.Institute of Problems of CriminologyCriminalistics and Forensic ExpertiseMinskBelarus
  4. 4.Department of AnthropologyComenius UniversityBratislavaSlovakia
  5. 5.Department of Experimental and Applied Genetics, Institute of Preventive and Clinical MedicineSlovak Medical UniversityBratislavaSlovakia
  6. 6.Department of DermatologyMedical UniversityGdanskPoland

Personalised recommendations