Advertisement

Review of Regional Research

, Volume 39, Issue 2, pp 189–208 | Cite as

Are they coming back? The mobility of university graduates in switzerland

  • Chantal OggenfussEmail author
  • Stefan C. Wolter
Original Paper

Abstract

The present paper focus on the possible impact of university graduates’ internal mobility in Switzerland. This is an interesting setting because all the cantons have to bear the public costs for their students irrespective of the students’ study place of choice. As not all the cantons have a university, in some cantons students have to leave their home involuntarily to attend university. Focusing on the description of factors explaining internal graduate mobility, we investigate which of the cantons lose potential tax payers for which they had to bear the study costs and discuss the potential consequences on the financing of higher education. On average, half of the students who had left their place of living in order to study do not return to their home canton. Approximately half of those who do not return from the canton in which they studied move to a third canton. Besides other factors, which are linked to post-graduation mobility, we find that top-performing students return less often than low performers. As a consequence, the cantons without universities face a quantitative as well as a qualitative disadvantage compared to cantons with a university.

Keywords

Student mobility Graduate mobility Brain gain Brain drain 

Kehren sie Zurück? Die Mobilität von Hochschulabsolventinnen und -Absolventen in der Schweiz

Zusammenfassung

Die vorliegende Arbeit untersucht die möglichen Auswirkungen der internen Mobilität von Hochschulabsolventen in der Schweiz. Ein empirisch interessantes Setting, da nicht alle Kantone eine Universität haben, müssen in einigen Kantonen die Studierenden ihre Heimat fürs Studium verlassen. Ausgehend von der Beschreibung der Faktoren, die die interne Mobilität der Absolventen erklären, untersuchen wir, welche der Kantone potenzielle Steuerzahler, für die sie die Studienkosten tragen mussten, verlieren und diskutieren mögliche Folgen für die Finanzierung der Hochschulbildung. Etwa die Hälfte derjenigen, die aus dem Kanton, in dem sie studiert haben, nicht zurückkehren, ziehen in einen dritten Kanton. Neben anderen Faktoren, die mit der Mobilität von Hochschulabsolventinnen und -absolventen zusammenhängen, stellen wir fest, dass leistungsstarke Studierende seltener zurückkehren als leistungsschwache. Dies hat zur Folge, dass die Herkunftskantone, die den Grossteil der Kosten auch für die mobilen Studierenden tragen, beim Verlust von Absolventinnen und Absolventen sowohl einen quantitativen wie qualitativen Nachteil haben.

JEL-codes

H52 H75 I23 J61 

Notes

References

  1. Abreu M, Faggian A, McCann P (2014) Migration and inter-industry mobility of UK graduates. J Econ Geogr 15(2):353–385.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jeg/lbt043 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bjerke L, Mellander C (2017) Moving home again? Never! The locational choices of graduates in Sweden. Ann Reg Sci 59(3):707–729.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00168-016-0777-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Buenstorf G, Geissler M, Krabel S (2016) Locations of labour market entry by German university graduates: is (regional) beauty in the eye of the beholder? Rev Reg Res 36(1):29–49.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10037-015-0102-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bundesamt für Statistik (2009) Technisches Handbuch der Erstbefragung der Hochschulabsolventen/innenstudien. BFS, NeuchâtelGoogle Scholar
  5. Bundesamt für Statistik (2016) Erhebung Quellen – Absolventen Hochschulen Steckbrief. https:// www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/de/home/statistiken/bildung-wissenschaft/erhebungen/ ashs.html. Accessed 15 Feb 2018Google Scholar
  6. Bundesamt für Statistik (2017) Binnenzuwanderung der ständigen Wohnbevölkerung nach Kanton, Staatsangehörigkeit (Kategorie), Geschlecht, Zivilstand und Alter. https://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/de/home/statistiken/bevoelkerung/migration-integration/binnenwanderung.assetdetail.6067443.html. Accessed 30 Nov 2018Google Scholar
  7. Busch O, Weigert B (2010) Where have all the graduates gone? Internal cross-state migration of graduates in Germany 1984–2004. Ann Reg Sci 44(3):559–572.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00168-008-0274-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Capuano S (2012) The South-North mobility of Italian college graduates. An empirical analysis. Eur Soc Rev 28(4):538–549.  https://doi.org/10.1093/esr/jcr023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Corcoran J, Faggian A (eds) (2017) Graduate migration and regional development. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham  https://doi.org/10.4337/9781784712167 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Crescenzi R, Holman N, Orru E (2016) Why do they return? Beyond the economic drivers of graduates return migration. Ann Reg Sci 59(3):603–627.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00168-016-0762-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Demange G, Fenge R, Uebelmesser S (2014) Financing higher education in a mobile world. J Public Econ Theory 16(3):343–371.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jpet.12064 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. EDK (Schweizerische Konferenz der kantonalen Erziehungsdirektoren) (1997) Interkantonale Universitätsvereinbarung. EDK, BernGoogle Scholar
  13. Faggian A, McCann P, Sheppard S (2007) Somme evidence that women are more mobile than men: gender differences in U.K. graduate migration behavior. J Reg Sci 47(3):517–539.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9787.2007.00518.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Falk S, Kratz F (2009) Regionale Mobilität von Hochschulabsolventen beim Berufseinstieg. Beiträge Zur Hochschulforsch 31(3):52–67Google Scholar
  15. FTA (Federal Tax Administration) (2017) The Swiss tax system. FTA, BernGoogle Scholar
  16. Gérard M, Uebelmesser S (2014) Financing higher education when students and graduates are internationally mobile. In: Gérard M, Uebelmesser (eds) The mobility of students and the highly skilled implications for education financing and economic policy. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 145–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Haapanen M, Tervo H (2012) Migration of the highly educated: evidence from residence spells of university graduates. J Reg Sci 52(4):587–605.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9787.2011.00745.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Haupt A, Krieger T, Lange T (2016) Competition for the international pool of talent. J Popul Econ 29(4):1113–1154.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00148-016-0601-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Haussen T, Uebelmesser S (2016) Student and graduate migration and its effect on the financing of higher education. Educ Econ 24(6):573–591.  https://doi.org/10.1080/09645292.2015.1113234 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Haussen T, Uebelmesser S (2018a) Job changes and interregional migration of graduates. Reg Stud 52(10):1346–1359.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00343404.2017.1381335 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Haussen T, Uebelmesser S (2018b) No place like home? Graduate migration in Germany. Growth Change 49(3):442–472.  https://doi.org/10.1111/grow.12249 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Krabel S, Flöther C (2014) Here today gone tomorrow? Regional labour mobility of German university graduates. Reg Stud 48(10):1609–1627.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00343404.2012.739282 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Lee ES (1966) A theory of migration. Demography 3(1):47–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Maier MF, Sprietsma M (2016) Does it pay to move? Returns to regional mobility at the start of the career for tertiary education graduates. ZEW Discussion Paper No. 16-060. Mannheim. http://ftp.zew.de/pub/zew-docs/dp/dp16060.pdf. Accessed 11 Apr 2019Google Scholar
  25. Marinelli E (2013) Sub-national graduate mobility and knowledge flows: an exploratory analysis of onward-and return-migrants in Italy. Reg Stud 47(10):1618–1633.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00343404.2012.709608 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Mohr H (2002) Räumliche Mobilität von Hochschulabsolventen. In: Bellmann L, Velling J (eds) Arbeitsmärkte für Hochqualifizierte Beiträge zur Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung, vol 256. Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung, Nürnberg, pp 249–277Google Scholar
  27. Moretti E (2004) Estimating the social return to higher education: evidence from longitudinal and repeated cross-sectional data. Journal of Econometrics 121(1-2):175–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Newbold KB (2017) Graduate migration in Canada. In: Corcoran J, Faggian A (eds) Graduate migration and regional development: an international perspective. Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, pp 42–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. OECD (2009) OECD Economic surveys Switzerland. OECD, ParisGoogle Scholar
  30. OECD (2015) Education at a glance 2015: OECD Indicators. OECD, ParisCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Oosterbeek H, Webbink D (2011) Does studying abroad induce a brain drain? Economica 78(310):347–366CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Poutvaara P (2001) Alternative tax constitutions and risky education in a federation. Regional Science and Urban Economics 31(2-3):355–377CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Von Proff S, Duschl M, Brenner T (2016) Motives behind the mobility of university graduates—A study of three German universities. Rev Reg Res 37(1):39–58.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10037-016-0107-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ramos R, Royuela V (2017) Graduate migration in Spain: the impact of great recession in low mobility country. In: Corcoran J, Faggian A (eds) Graduate migration and regional development: an international perspective. Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, pp 159–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. SCCRE (Swiss Coordination Centre for Research in Education) (2018) Bildungsbericht Schweiz 2018. SCCRE, AarauGoogle Scholar
  36. Sjaastad LA (1962) The costs and returns of human migration. J Polit Econ 70(5):80–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Venhorst VA, Van Dijk J, Van Wissen L (2010) Do the best graduates leave the peripheral areas of the Netherlands? Tijdschrift Voor Econ En Sociale Geografie 101(5):521–537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Venhorst VA, Van Dijk J, Van Wissen L (2011) An analysis of trends in spatial mobility of Dutch graduates. Spat Econ Anal 6(1):57–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Winters JV (2013) Human capital externalities and employment differences across metropolitan areas of the USA. J Econ Geogr 13(5):799–822.  https://doi.org/10.1093/jeg/lbs046 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Winters JV (2017) Do earnings by college major affect graduate migration? Ann Reg Sci 59(3):629–649.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00168-016-0748-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Swiss Coordination Centre for Research in EducationAarauSwitzerland
  2. 2.Department of EconomicsUniversity of BernBerneSwitzerland
  3. 3.Ifo InstituteCESifoMunichGermany
  4. 4.IZABonnGermany

Personalised recommendations