Shear of granular materials composed of ellipses
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Granular systems of disks (2D) and spheres (3D) under shear have been studied extensively. However, less attention has been paid to systems of non-spherical particles, i.e., ellipses, polygons, etc. Here we studied a quasi 2D granular system composed of ellipses under homogeneous simple shear. By tracking the positions and orientations of the ellipses, we have observed that they gradually rotate to align along a preferred direction as the shear strain increases. This preferred direction asymptotically approach a density-independent value at large strain. While first reported for disk systems, shear jamming is also observed for our ellipse system, as indicated by the increase of system pressure and coordination number with shear strain.
KeywordsGranular materials Elliptical particles Shear Photoelasticity
This work is dedicated to Bob Behringer, whom we are deeply indebted to and will forever miss. His role in supporting and mentoring this research clearly justifies his inclusion as a coauthor. This work was supported by NSF Grants No. DMR-1206351 and DMS-1248071, NASA Grant No. NNX15AD38G, the William M. Keck Foundation, DARPA Grant No. 4-34728, and a Research Triangle MRSEC fellowship (DW). HZ also thanks NSFC Grant No. 41672256 and NSFC (Jiangsu) Grant No. BK20180074.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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