Tensile stress relaxation in unsaturated granular materials
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The mechanics of granular media at low liquid saturation levels remain poorly understood. Macroscopic mechanical properties are affected by microscale forces and processes, such as capillary forces, inter-particle friction, liquid flows, and particle movements. An improved understanding of these microscale mechanisms is important for a range of industrial applications and natural phenomena (e.g. landslides). This study focuses on the transient evolution of the tensile stress of unsaturated granular media under extension. Experimental results suggest that the stress state of the material evolves even after cessation of sample extension. Moreover, we observe that the packing density strongly affects the efficiency of different processes that result in tensile stress relaxation. By comparing the observed relaxation time scales with published data, we conclude that tensile stress relaxation is governed by particle rearrangement and fluid redistribution. An increased packing density inhibits particle rearrangement and only leaves fluid redistribution as the major process that governs tensile stress relaxation.
KeywordsTensile stress Capillary forces Capillary bridges Fluid redistribution Grain rearrangement Granular material
We acknowledge financial support from the European Research Council (ERC) Advanced Grant Nos. 319968 FlowCCS. The technical assistance of Daniel Breitenstein in constructing the experimental apparatus is greatly appreciated.
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