Granular Matter

, Volume 14, Issue 2, pp 229–234

Surface curvature of steady granular flows

  • Jim N. McElwaine
  • Daisuke Takagi
  • Herbert E. Huppert
Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10035-012-0339-y

Cite this article as:
McElwaine, J.N., Takagi, D. & Huppert, H.E. Granular Matter (2012) 14: 229. doi:10.1007/s10035-012-0339-y

Abstract

Laboratory experiments have shown that the steady flow of granular material down a rough inclined plane has a surface that is not parallel to the plane, but has a curvature across the slope with the height increasing toward the middle of the flow. We study this observation by postulating a new granular rheology, similar to that of a second order fluid. This model is applied to the experiments using a shallow water approximation, given that the depth of the flow is much smaller than the width. The model predicts that a second normal stress difference allows cross-slope height variations to develop in regions with considerable cross-slope velocity shear, consistent with the experiments. The model also predicts the development of lateral eddies, which are yet to be observed.

Keywords

Shallow granular flow Normal stress difference Levée formation 

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jim N. McElwaine
    • 1
  • Daisuke Takagi
    • 1
  • Herbert E. Huppert
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical PhysicsInstitute of Theoretical Geophysics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of CambridgeCambridgeUK

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