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Hernia

, Volume 12, Issue 5, pp 449–452 | Cite as

Signs of herniosis in women with vaginal prolapse and/or stress incontinence

  • R. C. Read
Review

Abstract

Gynecological literature pertaining to prolapse or stress urinary incontinence published over the past four decades was reviewed to determine whether signs of herniosis, the systemic connective tissue co-morbidity known to play a significant role in abdominal herniation, were present and differed from controls. A total of eight indications were reported: (1) Genetic factors, i.e., family history and race, were predictive. (2) An increase in the incidence was observed in association with heritable diseases of collagen and their formes frustes (e.g., joint laxity). (3) Recurrence rate after repair was high (30%). (4) Fragmentation and degeneration of smooth muscle and collagen fibers were observed histologically. (5) Biochemistry demonstrated a decline of 24–40% in collagen content of skin, round ligament, cardinal ligament, periurethral vaginal wall, cervix, pubocervical, cervicococcygeal, and vesicovaginal fasciae. (6) In patients with stress urinary incontinence, collagen content decreased 60%. This change was independent of age, parity, menopausal status, and weight. (7) Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-2 and MMP-9) activity increased fourfold and that of their inhibitor TIMP-1 decreased. (8) Cigarette smoking, an acquired factor, increased the incidence of stress urinary incontinence. This commonality with the etiology of abdominal herniae explains why gynecologists have decreased their emphasis on childbirth injury and, like herniologists, have moved to discard the dogma “prolapse” as a designate for extraperitoneal herniation in the pelvis.

Keywords

Herniosis Vaginal prolapse Incontinence 

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of  SurgeryUniversity of  Arkansas for Medical SciencesLittle RockUSA
  2. 2.RockvilleUSA

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