Lake Characteristics, Population Properties and Invasion History Determine Impact of Invasive Bivalves on Lake Nutrient Dynamics
Invasive species can have large impacts on ecosystems, including the cycling and distribution of nutrients. To determine the whole-ecosystem effects of invasive zebra mussels on lake nutrient dynamics, we sampled 10 invaded Minnesota lakes spanning a broad trophic status gradient. We conducted N and P excretion and biodeposition rate measurements and determined the C, N and P composition of dreissenid soft tissues and shell material in the study lakes. We also estimated the whole-lake biomass of live dreissenid mussels and their dead shell material, constructing comprehensive nutrient budgets for dreissenid populations in the study lakes. We used the results of our measurements and published data to estimate the contribution of dreissenids to P budgets in 24 additional lakes in Europe and North America. Results show that nutrient cycling rates and composition of soft tissues and shells vary with mussel size and lake trophic status. Zebra mussels made variable, but often large, contributions to cycling and storage of water column standing stocks of POC, PON and TP in the study and literature lakes. In some lakes, the effects of zebra mussels on P dynamics were also considerable in the context of estimated P external and internal loading, sediment sequestration and effects of other biota. We show that the impact of zebra mussels on whole-lake nutrient budgets depends on lake properties, dreissenid population characteristics and invasion history. This information can be used by ecosystem managers to prioritize invasion prevention efforts toward lakes likely to be most strongly impacted by zebra mussel invasions.
Keywordsdreissenid mussels invasive species nutrient cycling benthic-pelagic coupling nutrient budgets ecological stoichiometry
We thank Julia Halbur, Sandra Brovold, Alyshia Trost, Michaela Matushak, Ben Block, Shannon McCallum, Karl Osterbauer, Mariah Carlson and Hallee Jorgensen for their assistance in the field and in the lab. We are grateful to the associate editor and two anonymous reviewers for their time and insightful comments. This research was supported in part by the University of Minnesota Duluth and by the U.S. Geological Survey through the Water Resources Center at the University of Minnesota under Award No. 2015MN360B. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as representing the opinions or policies of the U.S. Geological Survey. Mention of trade names or commercial products does not constitute their endorsement by the U.S. Geological Survey.
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