Advertisement

Ecosystems

pp 1–20 | Cite as

The Effect of Land-Use Change on Soil CH4 and N2O Fluxes: A Global Meta-Analysis

  • M. D. McDanielEmail author
  • D. Saha
  • M. G. Dumont
  • M. Hernández
  • M. A. Adams
Article

Abstract

Land-use change is a prominent feature of the Anthropocene. Transitions between natural and human-managed ecosystems affect biogeochemical cycles in many ways, but soil processes are among the least understood. We used a global meta-analysis (62 studies, 1670 paired comparisons) to examine effects of land conversion on soil–atmosphere fluxes of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) from upland soils, and determine soil and environmental factors driving these effects. Conversion from a natural ecosystem to any anthropogenic land use increased soil CH4 and N2O fluxes by 234 kg CO2-equivalents ha−1 y−1, on average. Reversion of managed ecosystems to that resembling natural ecosystems did not fully reverse those effects, even after 80 years. In general, neither the type of ecosystem converted, nor the type of subsequent anthropogenic land use, affected the magnitude of increase in soil emissions. Land-use changes in wetter ecosystems resulted in greater increases in CH4 fluxes, but reduced N2O fluxes. An interacting suite of soil variables influenced CH4 and N2O fluxes, with availability of inorganic nitrogen (that is, extractable ammonium and nitrate), pH, total carbon, and microclimate being strong mediators of effects of land-use change. In addition, time after a change in land use emerged as a critical factor explaining the effects of land-use change—with increased emissions of both greenhouse gases diminishing rapidly after conversion. Further research is needed to elucidate complex biotic and abiotic mechanisms that drive land-use change effects on soil greenhouse gas emissions, but particularly during this initial disturbance when emissions are greatest relative to native vegetation. Efforts to mitigate emissions will be severely hampered by this gap in knowledge.

Keywords

afforestation climate change cultivation deforestation global change greenhouse gas emissions methane nitrous oxide 

Notes

Acknowledgements

MAA acknowledges the support of the Australian Research Council. We would like to thank Drs. Lachlan Ingram, Feike Dijkstra, and Alberto Canarini for helpful discussion over the data and meta-analyses. We thank Drs. Klaus Butterbach-Bahl and Monica Turner, and three anonymous reviewers, for helpful comments and suggestions that have improved this manuscript.

Supplementary material

10021_2019_347_MOESM1_ESM.docx (585 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 501 kb)
10021_2019_347_MOESM2_ESM.docx (21 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOCX 21 kb)

References

  1. Akimoto H. 2003. Global air quality and pollution. Science 80(302):1716–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arai H, Hadi A, Darung U, Limin SH, Takahashi H, Hatano R, Inubushi K. 2014. Land use change affects microbial biomass and fluxes of carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide in tropical peatlands. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 60:423–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aronson EL, Allison SD. 2012. Meta-analysis of environmental impacts on nitrous oxide release in response to N amendment. Front Microbiol 3:272.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Aronson EL, Helliker BR. 2010. Methane flux in non-wetland soils in response to nitrogen addition: a meta-analysis. Ecology 91:3242–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Ball BC, Scott A, Parker JP. 1999. Field N2O, CO2 and CH4 fluxes in relation to tillage, compaction and soil quality in Scotland. Soil Tillage Res 53:29–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barton L, Wolf B, Rowlings D, Scheer C, Kiese R, Grace P, Stefanova K, Butterbach-Bahl K. 2015. Sampling frequency affects estimates of annual nitrous oxide fluxes. Sci Rep 5:15912.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Benanti G, Saunders M, Tobin B, Osborne B. 2014. Contrasting impacts of afforestation on nitrous oxide and methane emissions. Agric For Meteorol 198–199:82–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bender M, Conrad R. 1992. Kinetics of CH4 oxidation in oxic soils exposed to ambient air or high CH4 mixing ratios. FEMS Microbiol Lett 101:261–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bodelier PLE, Laanbroek HJ. 2004. Nitrogen as a regulatory factor of methane oxidation in soils and sediments. FEMS Microbiol Ecol 47:265–77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Boeckx P, Van Cleemput O, Villaralvo I. 1997. Methane oxidation in soils with different textures and land use. Nutr Cycl Agroecosystems 49:91–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Breiman L. 2001. Random forests. Mach Learn 45:5–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brussaard L, Caron P, Campbell B, Lipper L, Mainka S, Rabbinge R, Babin D, Pulleman M. 2010. Reconciling biodiversity conservation and food security: scientific challenges for a new agriculture. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 2:34–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chapuis-Lardy L, Wrage N, Metay A, Chotte J-L, Bernoux M. 2007. Soils, a sink for N2O? A review. Glob Chang Biol 13:1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Chen Y, Day SD, Shrestha RK, Strahm BD, Wiseman PE. 2014. Influence of urban land development and soil rehabilitation on soil–atmosphere greenhouse gas fluxes. Geoderma 226–227:348–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Conrad R. 2009. The global methane cycle: recent advances in understanding the microbial processes involved. Environ Microbiol Rep 1:285–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Conrad R, Rothfuss F. 1991. Methane oxidation in the soil surface layer of a flooded rice field and the effect of ammonium. Biol Fertil Soils 12:28–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cronk QCB, Fuller JL. 2014. Plant invaders: the threat to natural ecosystems. Abingdon: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dale VH, Houghton RA, Hall CAS. 1991. Estimating the effects of land-use change on global atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Can J For Res 21:84–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Davidson EA. 1992. Sources of nitric oxide and nitrous oxide following wetting of dry soil. Soil Sci Soc Am J 56:95–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dobbie KE, Smith KA, Prieme A, Christensen S, Degorska A, Orlanski P. 1996. Effect of land use on the rate of methane uptake by surface soils in northern Europe. Atmos Environ 30(7):1005–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. do Carmo JB, de Sousa Neto ER, Duarte-Neto PJ, Ometto JPHB, Martinelli LA. 2012. Conversion of the coastal Atlantic forest to pasture: consequences for the nitrogen cycle and soil greenhouse gas emissions. Agric Ecosyst Environ 148:37–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dooley S, Treseder K. 2012. The effect of fire on microbial biomass: a meta-analysis of field studies. Biogeochemistry 109:49–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dunfield P. 2007. The soil methane sink. In: Reay DS, Hewitt CN, Smith KA, Grace J, editors. Greenhouse gas sinks. CABI. pp 152–170.Google Scholar
  24. Erickson H, Keller M, Davidson AE. 2001. Nitrogen oxide fluxes and nitrogen cycling during postagricultural succession and forest fertilization in the Humid Tropics. Ecosystems 4:67–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fierer N, Strickland MS, Liptzin D, Bradford MA, Cleveland CC. 2009. Global patterns in belowground communities. Ecol Lett 12:1238–49.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Firestone MK, Davidson EA. 1989. Microbiological basis of NO and N2O production and consumption in soil. Exch Trace Gas Between Terr Ecosyst Atmos 47:7–21.Google Scholar
  27. Firestone MK, Firestone RB, Tiedje JM. 1980. Nitrous oxide from soil denitrification: factors controlling its biological production. Science 208:749–51.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Foley JA, DeFries R, Asner GP, Barford C, Bonan G, Carpenter SR, Chapin FS, Coe MT, Daily GC, Gibbs HK. 2005. Global consequences of land use. Science 309(80):570–4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Galbally I, Meyer CP, Wang Y-P, Kirstine W. 2010. Soil–atmosphere exchange of CH4, CO, N2O and NOx and the effects of land-use change in the semiarid Mallee system in Southeastern Australia. Glob Chang Biol 16:2407–19.Google Scholar
  30. Gillam KM, Zebarth BJ, Burton DL. 2008. Nitrous oxide emissions from denitrification and the partitioning of gaseous losses as affected by nitrate and carbon addition and soil aeration. Can J Soil Sci 88:133–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Godfray HCJ, Beddington JR, Crute IR, Haddad L, Lawrence D, Muir JF, Pretty J, Robinson S, Thomas SM, Toulmin C. 2010. Food security: the challenge of feeding 9 billion people. Science 327:812–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Guardia G, Abalos D, García-Marco S, Quemada M, Alonso-Ayuso M, Cárdenas LM, Dixon ER, Vallejo A. 2016. Effect of cover crops on greenhouse gas emissions in an irrigated field under integrated soil fertility management. Biogeosciences 13:5245–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Guo LB, Gifford RM. 2002. Soil carbon stocks and land use change: a meta analysis. Glob Chang Biol 8:345–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Gurevitch J, Hedges LV. 1999. Statistical issues in ecological meta-analyses. Ecology 80:1142–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hansen MC, Potapov PV, Moore R, Hancher M, Turubanova SA, Tyukavina A, Thau D, Stehman SV, Goetz SJ, Loveland TR, Kommareddy A, Egorov A, Chini L, Justice CO, Townshend JRG. 2013. High-resolution global maps of 21st-Century forest cover change. Science 342:850–3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Harriss RC, Sebacher DI, Day FP. 1982. Methane flux in the great dismal swamp. Nature 297:673–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hendrickson OQ, Chatarpaul L, Burgess D. 1989. Nutrient cycling following whole-tree and conventional harvest in northern mixed forest. Can J For Res 19:725–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hiltbrunner D, Zimmermann S, Karbin S, Hagedorn F, Niklaus PA. 2012. Increasing soil methane sink along a 120-year afforestation chronosequence is driven by soil moisture. Glob Chang Biol 18:3664–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Johnson DW. 1992. Effects of forest management on soil carbon storage. Natural sinks of CO2. Dordecht: Springer. p 83–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Jungkunst HF, Meurer KHE, Jurasinski G, Niehaus E, Günther A. 2018. How to best address spatial and temporal variability of soil-derived nitrous oxide and methane emissions. J Plant Nutr Soil Sci 181:7–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Kaye JP, Burke IC, Mosier AR, Pablo Guerschman J. 2004. Methane and nitrous oxide fluxes from urban soils to the atmosphere. Ecol Appl 14:975–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Kaye JP, Hart SC. 1997. Competition for nitrogen between plants and soil microorganisms. Trends Ecol Evol 12:139–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Keller M, Mitre ME, Stallard RF. 1990. Consumption of atmospheric methane in soils of central Panama: effects of agricultural development. Global Biogeochem Cycles 4:21–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Keller M, Reiners WA. 1994. Soil-atmosphere exchange of nitrous oxide, nitric oxide, and methane under secondary succession of pasture to forest in the Atlantic lowlands of Costa Rica. Global Biogeochem Cycles 8:399–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Keller M, Veldkamp E, Weitz AM, Reiners WA. 1993. Effect of pasture age on soil trace-gas emissions from a deforested area of Costa Rica. Nature 365:244–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kessavalou A, Doran JW, Mosier AR, Drijber RA. 1998. Greenhouse gas fluxes following tillage and wetting in a wheat-fallow cropping system. J Environ Qual 27:1105–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Knief C. 2015. Diversity and habitat preferences of cultivated and uncultivated aerobic methanotrophic nacteria evaluated based on pmoA as molecular marker. Front Microbiol 6(1346):1–38.Google Scholar
  48. Kolb S. 2009. The quest for atmospheric methane oxidizers in forest soils. Environ Microbiol Rep 1:336–46.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Koricheva J, Gurevitch J. 2014. Uses and misuses of meta-analysis in plant ecology. J Ecol 102:828–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Kravchenko AN, Robertson GP. 2015. Statistical challenges in analyses of chamber-based soil CO and N2O emissions data. Soil Sci Soc Am J 79:200–2911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lauber CL, Hamady M, Knight R, Fierer N. 2009. Pyrosequencing-based assessment of soil pH as a predictor of soil bacterial community structure at the continental scale. Appl Environ Microbiol 75:5111–20.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  52. Levy PE, Gray A, Leeson SR, Gaiawyn J, Kelly MPC, Cooper MDA, Dinsmore KJ, Jones SK, Sheppard LJ. 2011. Quantification of uncertainty in trace gas fluxes measured by the static chamber method. Eur J Soil Sci 62:811–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Liaw A, Wiener M. 2002. Classification and regression by randomForest. R News 2:18–22.Google Scholar
  54. Liu J, Jiang P, Li Y, Zhou G, Wu J, Yang F. 2011. Responses of N2O flux from forest soils to land use change in subtropical China. Bot Rev 77:320–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Liu L, Greaver TL. 2009. A review of nitrogen enrichment effects on three biogenic GHGs: the CO2 sink may be largely offset by stimulated N2O and CH4 emission. Ecol Lett 12:1103–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Livesley SJ, Grover S, Hutley LB, Jamali H, Butterbach-Bahl K, Fest B, Beringer J, Arndt SK. 2011. Seasonal variation and fire effects on CH4, N2O and CO2 exchange in savanna soils of northern Australia. Agric For Meteorol 151:1440–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Mapanda F, Mupini J, Wuta M, Nyamangara J, Rees RM. 2010. A cross-ecosystem assessment of the effects of land cover and land use on soil emission of selected greenhouse gases and related soil properties in Zimbabwe. Eur J Soil Sci 61:721–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mariani L, Chang SX, Kabzems R. 2006. Effects of tree harvesting, forest floor removal, and compaction on soil microbial biomass, microbial respiration, and N availability in a boreal aspen forest in British Columbia. Soil Biol Biochem 38:1734–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. McDaniel MD, Kaye JP, Kaye MW. 2014a. Do “hot moments” become hotter under climate change? Soil nitrogen dynamics from a climate manipulation experiment in a post-harvest forest. Biogeochemistry 121:339–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. McDaniel MD, Tiemann LK, Grandy AS. 2014b. Does agricultural crop diversity enhance soil microbial biomass and organic matter dynamics? A meta-analysis. Ecol Appl 24:560–70.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. McDaniel MD, Simpson RR, Malone BP, McBratney AB, Minasny B, Adams MA. 2017. Quantifying and predicting spatio-temporal variability of soil CH4 and N2O fluxes from a seemingly homogeneous Australian agricultural field. Agric Ecosyst Environ 240:182–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Merino A, Pérez-Batallón P, Macías F. 2004. Responses of soil organic matter and greenhouse gas fluxes to soil management and land use changes in a humid temperate region of southern Europe. Soil Biol Biochem 36(6):917–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Meurer KHE, Franko U, Stange CF, Rosa JD, Madari BE, Jungkunst HF. 2016. Direct nitrous oxide (N2O) fluxes from soils under different land use in Brazil—a critical review. Environ Res Lett 11:23001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Mueller ND, Gerber JS, Johnston M, Ray DK, Ramankutty N, Foley JA. 2012. Closing yield gaps through nutrient and water management. Nature 490:254–7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Myhre G, Shindell D, Bréon FM, Collins W, Fuglestvedt J, Huang J, Koch D, Lamarque JF, Lee D, Mendoza B. 2013. Anthropogenic and natural radiative forcing. Clim Chang 423:658–740.Google Scholar
  66. Nazaries L, Tate KR, Ross DJ, Singh J, Dando J, Saggar S, Baggs EM, Millard P, Murrell JC, Singh BK. 2011. Response of methanotrophic communities to afforestation and reforestation in New Zealand. ISME J 5:1832–6.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  67. Neill C, Steudler PA, Garcia-Montiel DC, Melillo JM, Feigl BJ, Piccolo MC, Cerri CC. 2005. Rates and controls of nitrous oxide and nitric oxide emissions following conversion of forest to pasture in Rondônia. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 71:1–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Nyawira S-S, Nabel JEMS, Don A, Brovkin V, Pongratz J. 2016. Soil carbon response to land-use change: evaluation of a global vegetation model using meta-data. Biogeosciences 13:5661–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Philibert A, Loyce C, Makowski D. 2012. Assessment of the quality of meta-analysis in agronomy. Agric Ecosyst Environ 148:72–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Power AG. 2010. Linking ecological sustainability and world food needs. Environ Dev Sustain 1:185–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pratscher J, Dumont MG, Conrad R. 2011. Assimilation of acetate by the putative atmospheric methane oxidizers belonging to the USCα clade. Environ Microbiol 13:2692–701.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Priemé A, Christensen S. 1999. Methane uptake by a selection of soils in Ghana with different land use. J Geophys Res Atmos 104:23617–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Priemé A, Christensen S, Dobbie KE, Smith KA. 1997. Slow increase in rate of methane oxidation in soils with time following land use change from arable agriculture to woodland. Soil Biol Biochem 29:1269–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Raich JW, Schlesinger WH. 1992. The global carbon dioxide flux in soil respiration and its relationship to vegetation and climate. Tellus B 44:81–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Reay DS, Hewitt CN, Smith KA. 2007. Nitrous oxide: importance, sources and sinks. In: Reay DS, Hewitt CN, Smith KA, Grace J, Eds. Greenhouse gas sinks. Cambridge, MA: CABI. p 201–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Reiners WA, Bouwman AF, Parsons WFJ, Keller M. 1994. Tropical rain forest conversion to pasture: changes in vegetation and soil properties. Ecol Appl 4:363–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Robertson GP, Paul EA, Harwood RR. 2000. Greenhouse gases in intensive agriculture: contributions of individual gases to the radiative forcing of the atmosphere. Science 289:1922–5.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Rosenberg MS, Adams DC, Gurevitch J. 2000. MetaWin: statistical software for meta-analysis. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates.Google Scholar
  79. Saha D, Kemanian AR, Rau BM, Adler PR, Montes F. 2017a. Designing efficient nitrous oxide sampling strategies in agroecosystems using simulation models. Atmos Environ 155:189–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Saha D, Rau BM, Kaye JP, Montes F, Adler PR, Kemanian AR. 2017b. Landscape control of nitrous oxide emissions during the transition from conservation reserve program to perennial grasses for bioenergy. Glob Change Biol Bioenergy 9:783–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Sainju UM, Caesar-TonThat T, Lenssen AW, Barsotti JL. 2012. Dryland soil greenhouse gas emissions affected by cropping sequence and nitrogen fertilization. Soil Sci Soc Am J 76:1741–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Scheer C, Wassmann R, Kienzler K, Ibragimov N, Lamers JPA, Martius C. 2008. Methane and nitrous oxide fluxes in annual and perennial land-use systems of the irrigated areas in the Aral Sea Basin. Glob Chang Biol 14:2454–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Scheffer M, Carpenter S, Foley JA, Folke C, Walker B. 2001. Catastrophic shifts in ecosystems. Nature 413:591–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Schimel JP, Bennett J. 2004. Nitrogen mineralization: challenges of a changing paradigm. Ecology 85:591–602.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Shcherbak I, Millar N, Robertson GP. 2014. Global metaanalysis of the nonlinear response of soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions to fertilizer nitrogen. Proc Natl Acad Sci 111:9199–204.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. ŠImek M, Cooper JE. 2002. The influence of soil pH on denitrification: progress towards the understanding of this interaction over the last 50 years. Eur J Soil Sci 53:345–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Simona C, Ariangelo DPR, John G, Nina N, Ruben M, José SJ. 2004. Nitrous oxide and methane fluxes from soils of the Orinoco savanna under different land uses. Glob Chang Biol 10(11):1947–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Smith KA, Dobbie KE, Ball BC, Bakken LR, Sitaula BK, Hansen S, Brumme R, Borken W, Christensen S, Priemé A, Fowler D, Macdonald JA, Skiba U, Klemedtsson L, Kasimir-Klemedtsson A, Degórska A, Orlanski P. 2000. Oxidation of atmospheric methane in Northern European soils, comparison with other ecosystems, and uncertainties in the global terrestrial sink. Glob Chang Biol 6:791–803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Solomon S. 2007. Climate change 2007-the physical science basis: Working group I contribution to the fourth assessment report of the IPCC. Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  90. Stehfest E, Bouwman L. 2006. N2O and NO emission from agricultural fields and soils under natural vegetation: summarizing available measurement data and modeling of global annual emissions. Nutr Cycl Agroecosyst 74:207–28.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Stekhoven DJ, Bühlmann P. 2011. MissForest—non-parametric missing value imputation for mixed-type data. Bioinformatics 28:112–18.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Steudler PA, Bowden RD, Melillo JM, Aber JD. 1989. Influence of nitrogen fertilization on methane uptake in temperate forest soils. Nature 341:314–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Steudler PA, Melillo JM, Bowden RD, Castro MS, Lugo AE. 1991. The effects of natural and human disturbances on soil nitrogen dynamics and trace gas fluxes in a Puerto Rican wet forest. Biotropica 23:356–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Steudler PA, Melillo JM, Feigl BJ, Neill C, Piccolo MC, Cerri CC. 1996. Consequence of forest-to-pasture conversion on CH4 fluxes in the Brazilian Amazon Basin. J Geophys Res Atmos 101:18547–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Sullivan BW, Selmants PC, Hart SC. 2013. Does dissolved organic carbon regulate biological methane oxidation in semiarid soils? Glob Chang Biol 19:2149–57.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Tate KR. 2015. Soil methane oxidation and land-use change—from process to mitigation. Soil Biol Biochem 80:260–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Tate KR, Ross DJ, Scott NA, Rodda NJ, Townsend JA, Arnold GC. 2006. Post-harvest patterns of carbon dioxide production, methane uptake and nitrous oxide production in a Pinus radiata D. Don plantation. For Ecol Manage 228:40–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Tonitto C, David MB, Drinkwater LE. 2006. Replacing bare fallows with cover crops in fertilizer-intensive cropping systems: a meta-analysis of crop yield and N dynamics. Agric Ecosyst Environ 112:58–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. van Groenigen KJ, Osenberg CW, Hungate BA. 2011. Increased soil emissions of potent greenhouse gases under increased atmospheric CO2. Nature 475:214–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. van Lent J, Hergoualc’h K, Hergoualc’h LV. 2015. Reviews and syntheses: soil N2O and NO emissions from land use and land use change in the tropics and subtropics: a meta-analysis. Biogeosciences 12:7299–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Velthof GL, Jarvis SC, Stein A, Allen AG, Oenema O. 1996. Spatial variability of nitrous oxide fluxes in mown and grazed grasslands on a poorly drained clay soil. Soil Biol Biochem 28:1215–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Venterea RT, Burger M, Spokas KA. 2005. Nitrogen oxide and methane emissions under varying tillage and fertilizer management. J Environ Qual 34:1467–77.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Verchot LV, Davidson EA, Cattânio JH, Ackerman IL. 2000. Land-use change and biogeochemical controls of methane fluxes in soils of eastern Amazonia. Ecosystems 3:41–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Vilà M, Espinar JL, Hejda M, Hulme PE, Jarošík V, Maron JL, Pergl J, Schaffner U, Sun Y, Pyšek P. 2011. Ecological impacts of invasive alien plants: a meta-analysis of their effects on species, communities and ecosystems. Ecol Lett 14:702–8.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. Wang Y, Guo J, Vogt RD, Mulder J, Wang J, Zhang X. 2018. Soil pH as the chief modifier for regional nitrous oxide emissions: new evidence and implications for global estimates and mitigation. Glob Chang Biol 24:617–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Wang Z-P, Ineson P. 2003. Methane oxidation in a temperate coniferous forest soil: effects of inorganic N. Soil Biol Biochem 35:427–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Weier KL, Doran JW, Power JF, Walters DT. 1993. Denitrification and the dinitrogen/nitrous oxide ratio as affected by soil water, available carbon, and nitrate. Soil Sci Soc Am J 57:66–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Wohl E. 2013. Wilderness is dead: whither critical zone studies and geomorphology in the Anthropocene? Anthropocene 2:4–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. D. McDaniel
    • 1
    • 6
    Email author
  • D. Saha
    • 2
  • M. G. Dumont
    • 3
  • M. Hernández
    • 4
  • M. A. Adams
    • 1
    • 5
  1. 1.Centre for Carbon Water and Food, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of SydneyCamdenAustralia
  2. 2.Kellogg Biological StationMichigan State UniversityHickory CornersUSA
  3. 3.School of Biological SciencesUniversity of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK
  4. 4.Max Planck Institute for Terrestrial MicrobiologyMarburgGermany
  5. 5.Swinburne University of TechnologyHawthornAustralia
  6. 6.Department of AgronomyIowa State UniversityAmesUSA

Personalised recommendations