Ecosystems

, Volume 20, Issue 5, pp 960–974 | Cite as

Long-Term Release of Carbon Dioxide from Arctic Tundra Ecosystems in Alaska

  • E. S. Euskirchen
  • M. S. Bret-Harte
  • G. R. Shaver
  • C. W. Edgar
  • V. E. Romanovsky
Article

Abstract

Releases of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) from thawing permafrost are expected to be among the largest feedbacks to climate from arctic ecosystems. However, the current net carbon (C) balance of terrestrial arctic ecosystems is unknown. Recent studies suggest that these ecosystems are sources, sinks, or approximately in balance at present. This uncertainty arises because there are few long-term continuous measurements of arctic tundra CO2 fluxes over the full annual cycle. Here, we describe a pattern of CO2 loss based on the longest continuous record of direct measurements of CO2 fluxes in the Alaskan Arctic, from two representative tundra ecosystems, wet sedge and heath tundra. We also report on a shorter time series of continuous measurements from a third ecosystem, tussock tundra. The amount of CO2 loss from both heath and wet sedge ecosystems was related to the timing of freeze-up of the soil active layer in the fall. Wet sedge tundra lost the most CO2 during the anomalously warm autumn periods of September–December 2013–2015, with CH4 emissions contributing little to the overall C budget. Losses of C translated to approximately 4.1 and 1.4% of the total soil C stocks in active layer of the wet sedge and heath tundra, respectively, from 2008 to 2015. Increases in air temperature and soil temperatures at all depths may trigger a new trajectory of CO2 release, which will be a significant feedback to further warming if it is representative of larger areas of the Arctic.

Keywords

arctic tundra net ecosystem exchange permafrost soil temperature carbon dioxide methane 

Supplementary material

10021_2016_85_MOESM1_ESM.docx (12 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 12 kb)
10021_2016_85_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (9 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (PDF 8 kb)
10021_2016_85_MOESM3_ESM.pdf (25 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (PDF 25 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. S. Euskirchen
    • 1
  • M. S. Bret-Harte
    • 1
  • G. R. Shaver
    • 2
  • C. W. Edgar
    • 1
  • V. E. Romanovsky
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.University of Alaska FairbanksInstitute of Arctic BiologyFairbanksUSA
  2. 2.The Ecosystems CenterMarine Biological LaboratoryWoods HoleUSA
  3. 3.University of Alaska FairbanksGeophysical InstituteFairbanksUSA
  4. 4.Tyumen State Oil and Gas UniversityTyumen’Russia

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