Numerical Exploration of the Planktonic to Benthic Primary Production Ratios in Lakes of the Baltic Sea Catchment
Autotrophic structure refers to the partitioning of whole-ecosystem primary production between benthic and planktonic primary producers. Autotrophic structure remains poorly understood especially because of the paucity of estimates regarding benthic primary production. We used a conceptual model for numerically exploring the autotrophic structure of 13 hemiboreal lakes situated in the Baltic Sea catchment. We also used diel variations in primary production profiles to graphically evaluate levels of light and/or nutrient limitation in lakes. The input morphometric data, light extinction coefficients and dissolved carbon parameters were mostly obtained from in situ measurements. Results revealed that cross- and within-lake autotrophic structure varied greatly: one lake was clearly dominated by benthic production, and three lakes by phytoplankton production. In the rest, phytoplankton production was generally dominant but switch to benthic dominance was possible. The modelled primary production profiles varied according to lake water clarity and bathymetry. Our results clearly indicate that the relative contribution of benthic primary production to whole-lake primary production should be taken into account in studies about hemiboreal and boreal lakes.
Keywordsprimary production lake bathymetry chlorophyll a dissolved organic carbon light extinction coefficient
The authors are grateful to Toomas Kõiv, Ingmar Ott and Pille Meinson for assistance in data analysing. Sean C. Godwin (Simon Fraser University) provided great help for the benthic production calculations. This research was supported by Start-Up Personal Research Grant PUT 777 to FC and IUT 21-2 of the Estonian Ministry of Education and Research, Estonian Science Foundation grant ETF9102, the EU through the European Regional Development Fund, program “Research Internationalisation” project LIMNO, the Swiss Grant “Enhancing public environmental monitoring capacities” and MARS project (Managing Aquatic ecosystems and water Resources under multiple Stress) funded under the 7th EU Framework Programme, Theme 6 (Environment including Climate Change), Contract No.: 603378 (http://www.mars-project.eu).
- Armengol J, Caputo L, Comerma M, Feijoó C, García JC, Marcé R, Navarro E, Ordoñez J. 2003. Sau reservoir’s light climate: relationships between Secchi depth and light extinction coefficient. Limnetica 22:195–210.Google Scholar
- Arst H, Erm A, Herlevi A, Kutser T, Leppäranta M, Reinart A, Virta J. 2008. Optical properties of Boreal lake waters in Finland and Estonia. Boreal Environ Res 13:133–58.Google Scholar
- Jeppesen E, Meerhoff M, Davidson TA, Trolle D, Søndergaard M, Lauridsen TL, Beklioglu M, Brucet S, Volta P, Gonzalez-Bergonzoni I, Nielsen A. 2014. Climate change impacts on lakes: an integrated ecological perspective based on a multi-faceted approach, with special focus on shallow lakes. J Limnol 73:88–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kalff J. 2002. Limnology. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- Lewis WM Jr. 1996. Tropical lakes: how latitude makes a difference p. In: Schiemer F, Boland KT, Eds. Perspectives in tropical limnology. Amsterdam: SPB Academic Publishing. p 43–64.Google Scholar
- Ministry of the Environment. 2009. Procedure for the establishment of bodies of surface water and a list of the bodies of surface water the State of which is to be established, classes of the states and the values of quality indicators corresponding to these state classes, and the procedure for the establishment of the classes of state (RTL 2009, 64, 941). Order from 28.07.2009 No. 44. Ministry of the Environment, 11 pp. (www.riigiteataja.ee/akt/13210253). Estonian.
- Ott I, Kõiv T. 1999. Estonian small lakes: special features and changes. Tallinn: Est Environ Inf Centre.Google Scholar
- Paavel B, Arst H, Reinart A, Herlevi A. 2006. Model calculations of diffuse attenuation coefficient spectra in lake waters. Proc Est Acad Sci 55:61–81.Google Scholar
- Thornton KW, Kimmel BL, Payne FE. 1990. Reservoir limnology: ecological perspectives. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar