Adapting Management of Marine Environments to a Changing Climate: A Checklist to Guide Reform and Assess Progress
- 835 Downloads
Documented impacts of climate change on marine systems indicate widespread changes in many geographic regions and throughout all levels of the ocean’s food webs. Oceans provide the main source of animal protein for over a billion people, and contribute significantly to food security for billions more. Clearly, if we are to continue to derive these benefits, then the rate of adaptation in our human systems needs to at least keep pace with the rate of ecological change for these benefits to continue. An Australia-wide program of research into marine biodiversity and fisheries explored the opportunities for policy and management to respond to a changing climate. The research program spanned all Australian estuarine-nearshore and marine environments—tropical, subtropical, and temperate—and focused on two key marine sectors: biodiversity conservation and fisheries (commercial, recreational, and aquaculture). Key findings from across this strategic and extensive research investment were the need to foster resilience through habitat repair and protection, improve resource allocation strategies, fine-tune fisheries management systems, and enhance whole of government approaches and policies. Building on these findings, from a climate adaptation perspective, we generated a checklist of thirteen elements encompassing all project findings to assess and steer progress towards improving marine policy and management. These elements are grouped in three broad areas: preconditioning; future proofing; and transformational changes and opportunities. Arising from these elements is a suite of priority strategies that provide guidance for marine managers, policy practitioners, and stakeholders as they prepare for a future under climate change. As the research program encompassed a wide range of habitats and ecosystems, spanned a latitudinal range of over 30°, and considered a diversity of management systems and approaches, many of these elements and strategies will be applicable in a global context.
Keywordsmarine biodiversity fisheries management marine conservation climate change adaptation transformation
The Climate Change Adaptation—Marine Biodiversity and Fisheries research initiative was supported by Australian and State Governments, CSIRO, and many Australian universities. We acknowledge the contributing research efforts led by teams in each of the projects we describe here, and the comments of the anonymous reviewers and editor in improving the manuscript.
- ABARES. 2013. Australian Fisheries Statistics 2012. Australian Bureau of Agricultural and Resource Economics and Sciences. Canberra. Available at http://www.agriculture.gov.au/abares/publications [accessed 25 February 2015].
- AIMS. 2012. The AIMS index of marine industry. Available at http://www.aims.gov.au/docs/about/site-index.html [accessed 25 February 2015].
- Ban N, Bax NJ, Gjerde KM, Devillers R, Dunn DC, Dunstan PK, Hobday AJ, Maxwell SM, Kaplan DM, Pressey RL, Ardron JA, Game ET, Halpin PN. 2014. Systematic conservation planning: a better recipe for managing the high seas for biodiversity conservation and sustainable use. Conserv Lett 7:41–54. doi: 10.1111/conl.12010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Battaglene SC, Carter C, Hobday AJ, Lyne V, Nowak B. 2008. Scoping Study into Adaptation of the Tasmanian Salmonid Aquaculture Industry to Potential Impacts of Climate Change. National Agriculture & Climate Change Action Plan: Implementation Programme Report. 83p.Google Scholar
- Bell JD, Johnson JE, Hobday AJ, Eds. 2011. Vulnerability of Tropical Pacific Fisheries and Aquaculture to Climate Change. Noumea: Secretariat of the Pacific Community.Google Scholar
- Blackwell B. 2005. The economic value of Australia’s natural coastal assets: some preliminary findings. Ecological Economics in Action Conference, December 11–13 2005, Massey University, Palmerston North, pp 143–151. Available at http://www.anzsee.org/decconferindex.asp [Accessed 28 September 2006].
- Caputi N, Feng M, Pearce A, Benthuysen J, Denham A, Hetzel Y, Matear R, Jackson G, Molony B, Joll L, Chandrapavan A. 2014. Management implications of climate change effect on fisheries in Western Australia. FRDC 2010/535.Google Scholar
- Carpenter SR, Folke C, Norström A, Olsson O, Schultz L, Agarwal B, Balvanera P, Campbell B, Castilla JC, Cramer W, DeFries R, Eyzaguirre P, Hughes TP, Polasky S, Sanusi Z, Scholes R, Spierenburg M. 2012. Program on ecosystem change and society: an international research strategy for integrated social-ecological systems. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 4:134–8. doi: 10.1016/j.cosust.2012.01.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Creighton C. 2014 Marine Australia—directions for management and further research FRDC project #2009/074. Available at http://frdc.com.au/research/final-reports/Pages/2009-074-DLD.aspx [accessed 25 February 2015].
- Creighton C. 2013a. Revitalising Great Barrier Reef estuaries and coastal wetlands FRDC project #2012/036. Available at http://frdc.com.au/research/final-reports/Pages/2012-036-DLD.aspx [accessed 25 February 2015].
- Creighton C. 2013b. Revitalising Australia’s Estuaries—the busines case for repairing coastal ecosystems FRDC project #2012/036. Available at http://frdc.com.au/research/Documents/2012-036-Business-Case.pdf [accessed 25 February 25, 2015].
- Creighton C, Sawynok B, Sutton S, D’Silva D, Stagles I, Pam C, Saunders R, Welch D, Grixti D, Spooner D. 2013. Climate Change and Recreational Fishing. Report #2011/037. Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, Canberra.Google Scholar
- Crowder LB, Osherenko G, Young OR, Airamé S, Norse EA, Baron N, Day JC, Douvere F, Ehler CN, Halpern BS, Langdon SJ, McLeod KL, Ogden JC, Peach RE, Rosenberg AA, Wilson JA. 2006. Resolving mismatches in U.S. Ocean Governance. Science 313:617–18. doi: 10.1126/science.1129706.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Davidson J, Lockwood M, Haward M, Kriwoken L, Hockings M, Allchin R. 2013. Improving marine biodiversity governance in the context of environmental change: three Australian case studies. Report # 3 to the Fisheries Research and Development Corporation. School of Geography and Environmental Studies, University of Tasmania, Hobart.Google Scholar
- Diaz RJ. 2002. Hypoxia and anoxia as global phenomena. In: Thurston RV, Ed. Proceedings of the sixth international symposium, fish physiology, toxicology, and water quality. Athens: Ecosystems Research Division. p 183–202.Google Scholar
- Dichmont CM, Deng RA, Sheaves M, Bustamante R, van Putten I, Dutra I, McLean N, Dale P, Sporne I, Savina-Rolland M. 2014. Which estuarine climate adaptation toll suits your needs? A review and assessment of tools to support climate adaptation for estuaries. Regional Environmental Change, in press.Google Scholar
- Doney SC, Ruckelshaus M, Duffy JE, Barry JP, Chan F, English CA, Galindo HM, Grebmeier GM, Hollowed AB, Knowlton N, Polovina J, Rabalais NN, Sydeman WJ, Talley LD. 2012. Climate Change Impacts on Marine Ecosystems. Annu Rev Mar Sci 4:11–37. doi: 10.1146/annurev-marine-041911-111611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- FAO. 2009. Integrated mariculture: a global review. In: Soto D, Ed. Fisheries and Aquaculture. Technical Paper 529. Rome: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department.Google Scholar
- GBRMPA. 2011. Tropical Cyclone Risk and Impact Assessment Plan 2011. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority. 31p.Google Scholar
- Halpern BS, Longo C, Hardy D, McLeod KL, Samhouri JF, Katona SK, Kleisner K, Lester SE, O’Leary J, Ranelletti M, Rosenberg AA, Scarborough C, Selig ER, Best BD, Brumbaugh DR, Chapin FS, Crowder LB, Daly KL, Doney SC, Elfes C, Fogarty MJ, Gaines SD, Jacobsen KI, Karrer LB, Leslie HM, Neeley E, Pauly D, Polasky S, Ris B, St Martin K, Stone GS, Sumaila UR, Zeller D. 2012. An index to assess the health and benefits of the global ocean. Nature 488:615–20. doi: 10.1038/nature11397.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hobday AJ, Poloczanska ES, Matear R. 2008. Implications of Climate Change for Australian Fisheries and Aquaculture: A Preliminary Assessment, Report to the Department of Climate Change, Canberra, August 2008. Available at http://www.cmar.csiro.au/climateimpacts/reports.htm. [accessed 25 February 2015].
- Hobday AJ, Spillman CM, Hartog JR, Eveson JP. Seasonal forecasting for decision support in marine fisheries and aquaculture. Fisheries Oceanography, in press.Google Scholar
- Hobday AJ, Chambers LE, Arnould JPY, Patterson TA, Wilcox C, Tuck GN, Thomson RB. 2014b. Developing adaptation options for seabirds and marine mammals impacted by climate change. Final Report. FRDC-DCCEE Marine National Adaptation Research Project 2010/0533.Google Scholar
- Hobday AJ, Maxwell SM, Forgie J, McDonald J, Darby M, Seto K, Bailey H, Bograd SJ, Briscoe DK, Costa DP, Crowder LB, Dunn DC, Fossette S, Halpin PN, Hartog JR, Hazen EL, Lascelles BG, Lewison RL, Poulos G, Powers A. 2014a. Dynamic ocean management: Integrating scientific and technological capacity with law, policy and management. Stanf Environ Law J 33:125–65.Google Scholar
- Jerry DR, Smith-Keune C, Caton AG, Pirozzi I, Hodgson L, van der Waal J, Hutson KS. 2014. Vulnerability of an iconic Australian finfish (Barramundi, Lates calcarifer) and related industries to altered climate across tropical Australia FRDC 2010/521.Google Scholar
- Lawrence AJ, Baker E, Lovelock CE. 2012. Optimising and managing coastal carbon: comparative sequestration and mitigation opportunities across Australia’s landscapes and land uses. FRDC Report 2011/084. Fisheries Research and Development Corporation.Google Scholar
- Lebel L, Anderies JM, Campbell B, Folke C, Hatfield-Dodds S, Hughes TP, Wilson J. 2006. Governance and the capacity to manage resilience in regional social-ecological systems. Ecology and Society 11:19. Available at http://www.ecologyandsociety.org/vol11/iss1/art19/.
- Lim-Camacho L, Hobday AJ, Bustamante RH, Farmery A, Fleming A, Frusher S, Green BS, Norman-Lopez A, Pecl G, Plagányi EE, Schrobback P, Thebaud P, Thomas L, van Putten EI. 2014. Facing the wave of change: Stakeholder perspectives on climate adaptation for Australian seafood supply chains. Reg Environ Change . doi: 10.1007/s10113-014-0670-4.Google Scholar
- Lockwood M, Quintela C. 2006. Finance and economics. In: Lockwood M, Worboys G, Kothari A, Eds. Managing Protected Areas: A Global Guide. London: Earthscan.Google Scholar
- Mapstone BD, Appleford P, Broderick K, Connolly R, Higgins J, Hobday A, Hughes TP, Marshall PA, McDonald J, Waschka M. 2010. National Climate Change Adaptation Research Plan for Marine Biodiversity and Resources. Gold Coast: National Climate Change Adaptation Research Facility. 68p.Google Scholar
- Maury O, Miller K, Campling L, Arrizabalaga H, Aumont O, Bodin O, Guillotreau P, Hobday AJ, Marsac F, Suzuki Z, Murtugudde R. 2013. A global science-policy partnership for progress towards sustainability of oceanic ecosystems and fisheries. Curr Opin Environ Sustain 5:314–19. doi: 10.1016/j.cosust.2013.05.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Merrie A, Dunn DC, Metian M, Boustany AM, Takei Y, Elferink AO, Ota Y, Christensen V, Halpin PN, Osterblom H. 2014. An ocean of surprises—trends in human use, unexpected dynamics and governance challenges in areas beyond national jurisdiction. Glob Environm Change 27:19–31. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.04.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nellemann C, Corcoran E, Duarte CM, Valdés L, De Young C, Fonseca L, Grimsditch G, editors. 2009. Blue Carbon: The Role of Healthy Oceans in Binding Carbon. Blue Carbon. A Rapid Response Assessment. United Nations Environment Programme, GRID-Arendal, Available at www.grida.no.
- New Zealand Seafood Industry Council. 2010. Energy Efficiency Handbook for Inshore Vessels: A Resource for Inshore Vessel Operators. Wellington: New Zealand Seafood Industry Council.Google Scholar
- Pearce A, Lenanton R, Jackson G, Moore J, Feng M, Gaughan D. 2011. The “marine heat wave” off Western Australia during the summer of 2010/11. Fisheries Research Report No. 222. Department of Fisheries, Western Australia.Google Scholar
- Pecl GT, Ward T, Briceño F, Fowler A, Frusher S, Gardner C, Hamer P, Hartmann K, Hartog J, Hobday A, Hoshino E, Jennings S, Le Bouhellec B, Linnane A, Marzloff M, Mayfield S, Mundy C, Ogier E, Sullivan A, Tracey S, Tuck G, Wayte S. 2014a. Preparing fisheries for climate change: identifying adaptation options for four key fisheries in South Eastern Australia. Fisheries Research and Development Corporation, Project 2011/039.Google Scholar
- Pecl GT, Ward T, Doubleday Z, Clarke S, Day J, Dixon C, Frusher S, Gibbs P, Hobday A, Hutchinson N, Jennings S, Jones K, Li X, Spooner D, Stoklosa R. 2014b. Rapid assessment of fisheries species sensitivity to climate change. Clim Change 127:505–20. doi: 10.1007/s10584-014-1284-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Plagányi EE, van Putten EI, Thebaud O, Hobday AJ, Innes J, Lim-Camacho L, Norman-Lopez A, Bustamante R, Farmery A, Fleming A, Frusher S, Green BS, Hoshino E, Jennings S, Pecl G, Pascoe S, Schrobback P, Thomas L. 2014. A quantitative metric to identify critical elements within seafood supply networks. PLoS One 9:e91833. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0091833.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Poloczanska ES, Babcock RC, Butler A, Hobday AJ, Hoegh-Guldberg O, Kunz TJ, Matear R, Milton D, Okey TA, Richardson AJ. 2007. Climate Change And Australian Marine Life. Oceanogr Mar Biol Annu Rev 45:409–80.Google Scholar
- Poloczanska ES, Hobday AJ, Richardson AJ, editors. 2012. Report Card of Marine Climate Change for Australia 2012. Available at http://www.oceanclimatechange.org.au.
- Poloczanska ES, Brown CJ, Sydeman WJ, Kiessling W, Schoeman DS, Moore PJ, Brander K, Bruno JF, Buckley LB, Burrows MT, Duarte CM, Halpern BS, Holding J, Kappel CV, O’Connor MI, Pandolfi JM, Parmesan C, Schwing F, Thompson SA, Richardson AJ. 2013. Global imprint of climate change on marine life. Nat Clim Change 3:919–25. doi: 10.1038/NCLIMATE1958.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Polovina JJ, Hobday AJ, Koslow JA, Saba VS. 2014. Open Ocean Tropical and Subtropical Systems (Chap. 13). In: Fogarty MJ, McCarthy JJ, Eds. The Sea: Marine Ecosystem-Based Management. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. p 429–73.Google Scholar
- Prahalad VN, Kirkpatrick JB, Mount RE. 2012. Tasmanian coastal saltmarsh community transitions associated with climate change and relative sea level rise 1975–2009. Aust J Bot 59(8):741–8.Google Scholar
- Robinson LM, Gledhill DC, Moltschaniwskyj NA, Hobday AJ, Frusher SD, Barrett N, Stuart-Smith JF, Pecl GT. 2015. Rapid assessment of short-term datasets in an ocean warming hotspot reveals “high” confidence in potential range extensions. Glob Environ Change 31:28–37. doi: 10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2014.12.003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rockström J, Steffen W, Noone K, Persson Å, Chapin FS, Lambin E, Lenton TM, Scheffer M, Folke C, Schellnhuber HJ, Nykvist B, de Wit CA, Hughes T, van der Leeuw S, Rodhe H, Sörlin S, Snyder PK, Costanza R, Svedin U, Falkenmark M, Karlberg L, Corell RW, Fabry VJ, Hansen J, Walker B, Liverman D, Richardson K, Crutzen P, Foley J. 2009. A safe operating space for humanity. Nature 461:472–5. doi: 10.1038/461472a.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Schlüter M, McAllister RRJ, Arlinghaus R, Bunnefeld N, Eisenack K, Hölker F, Milner-Gulland EJ, Müller B, Nicholson E, Quaas M, Stöven M. 2012. New horizons for managing the environment: a review of coupled social-ecological systems modeling. Nat Resour Model 25:219–72. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-7445.2011.00108.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- SoE. 2011. State of the Environment. 2011. Independent Report to the Australian Government Minister for Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. Canberra: Australian State of the Environment Committee.Google Scholar
- Steffen W, Richardson K, Rockstrom J, Cornell SE, Fetzer I, Bennett EM, Biggs R, Carpenter SR, de Vries W, de Wit CA, Folke C, Gerten D, Heinke J, Mace GM, Persson LM, Ramanathan V, Reyers B, Sorlin S. 2015. Planetary boundaries: guiding human development on a changing planet. Science . doi: 10.1126/science.1259855.Google Scholar
- Stock CA, Alexander MA, Bond NA, Brander KM, Cheung WWL, Curchitser EN, Delworth TL, Dunne JP, Griffies SM, Haltuch MA, Hare JA, Hollowed AB, Lehodey P, Levin SA, Link JS, Rose KA, Rykaczewski RR, Sarmiento JL, Stouffer RJ, Schwing FB, Vecchi GA, Werner FE. 2011. On the use of IPCC-class models to assess the impact of climate on Living Marine Resources. Prog Oceanogr 88:1–27. doi: 10.1016/j.pocean.2010.09.001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- United Nations. 1982. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea. Available at http://www.un.org/depts/los/convention_agreements/convention_overview_convention.htm.
- Welch DJ, Saunders T, Robins J, Harry A, Johnson J, Maynard J, Saunders R, Pecl G, Sawynok B, Tobin A. 2014. Implications of climate change on fisheries resources of northern Australia. Part 1: Vulnerability assessment and adaptation options. FRDC Project No: 2010/565.Google Scholar