Management Forcing Increased Specialization in a Fishery System
- 574 Downloads
Fisheries systems are shaped by dynamic social-ecological interactions that determine their capacity to provide ecosystem services. Human adaptation is often considered a key uncertainty, and there are few quantitative empirical analyses that address long-term social and ecological change in the analyses of fisheries systems. The aim of this study was twofold: (i) to understand how different drivers influenced the adaptations by fishers, and (ii) to evaluate different consequences of such adaptations, especially with regard to diversity of social and ecological links. We used the Baltic Sea as a case study, a system with different fisheries, largely managed with a single-stock advice, in a top-down basis. The study period 1995–2009 was characterized by profound inter-annual fluctuations in fish stock status and prices, and introduction of new types of management measures. We used multivariate statistical methods to define longitudinal changes in fishing tactics and strategies based on logbook data. Our results indicate that changes in fishing strategies have mainly been driven by regulations, and there were only weak linkages between fishing activities, fish stocks, and price fluctuations. We found contrasting trends between large- and small-scale fishers, where large-scale fishers became more specialized and inflexible, whereas small-scale fishers diversified over time. We conclude that management has had a dominating role in shaping fishing patterns, leading to a reduction of important qualities related to the resilience in this social-ecological system.
Keywordsfisheries management social-ecological systems Baltic Sea resilience diversity redundancy metiers analysis fishing strategies ecosystem markets
This research was supported by Mistra through a core grant to the Stockholm Resilience Centre at Stockholm University. Support was also provided by the “Baltic Ecosystem Adaptive Management (BEAM)” and “Regime shifts in the Baltic Sea Ecosystem—Modeling complex adaptive ecosystems and governance implications” projects, funded by FORMAS. We are grateful to Katja Ringdahl, Johan Lövgren, and Michele Casini at the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Lysekil, Sweden for help with data preparation. Margit Eero and two anonymous reviewers provided substantial input on an earlier version of the manuscript.
- Berggren M. 2013. Is Growing Larger the Same as Becoming Resilient? A case study of the Gothenburg Pelagic Offshore Fishery. M.Sc thesis. p 45.Google Scholar
- Berkes F, Folke C. 1998. Linking social and ecological systems for resilience and sustainability. Linking social and ecological systems: management practices and social mechanisms for building resilience. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p 1–25.Google Scholar
- Björkvik E. 2013. Explaining the decline in Swedish Baltic Sea small-scale fisheries: A historical analysis of fishers in their social and ecological context. p 50.Google Scholar
- Boonstra W, Hentati-Sundberg J. 2014. How to classify fishers’ behaviour—an invitation to Fishing Styles. Fish & Fisheries. doi: 10.1111/faf.12092.
- Chapin F, Carpenter SR, Kofinas GP, Folke C, Abel N, Clark WC, Olsson P, Smith DMS, Walker BH, Young OR, Berkes F, Biggs R, Grove JM, Naylor RL, Pinkerton E, Steffen W, Swanson FJ. 2010. Ecosystem stewardship: sustainability strategies for a rapidly changing planet. Trends Ecol Evol 25:241–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- EC. 2012. Council Regulation (EU) No 1256/2011 of 30 November 2011 fixing for 2012 the fishing opportunities for certain fish stocks and groups of fish stocks applicable in the Baltic Sea and amending Regulation (EU) No 1124/2010.Google Scholar
- Folke C, Carpenter SR, Walker B, Scheffer M, Chapin T, Rockström J. 2010. Resilience thinking: integrating resilience, adaptability and transformability. Ecol Soc 15:20.Google Scholar
- Halpern BS, Walbridge S, Selkoe K, Kappel CV, Micheli F, D’Agrosa C, Bruno JF, Casey KS, Ebert C, Fox HE, Fujita R, Heinemann D, Lenihan HS, Madin EMP, Perry MT, Selig ER, Spalding M, Steneck R, Watson R. 2008. A global map of human impact on marine ecosystems. Science 319:948–52.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hentati-Sundberg J, Hjelm J, Österblom H. 2014. Does fisheries management incentivize non-compliance? Estimated misreporting in the Swedish Baltic Sea pelagic fishery based on commercial fishing effort. ICES J Mar Sci. doi: 10.1093/icesjms/fsu036.
- Howarth LM, Roberts CM, Thurstan RH, Stewart BD. 2013. The unintended consequences of simplifying the sea: making the case for complexity. Fish Fish. doi: 10.1111/faf.12041.
- ICES. 2013. Report of the Baltic Fisheries Assessment Working Group 2013 (WGBFAS), 10–17 April 2013, ICES Headquarters, Copenhagen. ICES CM 2013/ACOM:10.Google Scholar
- ICES. 2014. ICES Historical Catch Statistics 1950-2010. http://www.ices.dk/marine-data/dataset-collections/Pages/Fish-catch-and-stock-assessment.aspx. Accessed 28 June 2014.
- Jackson JBC, Kirby MX, Berger WH, Bjorndal K a, Botsford LW, Bourque BJ, Bradbury RH, Cooke R, Erlandson J, Estes J a., Hughes TP, Kidwell S, Lange CB, Lenihan HS, Pandolfi JM, Peterson CH, Steneck RS, Tegner MJ, Warner RR. 2001. Historical overfishing and the recent collapse of coastal ecosystems. Science 293:629–37.Google Scholar
- Kaufman L, Rousseeuw P. 2005. Finding groups in data: an introduction to cluster analysis. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Matson PA, Parton W, Power A, Swift M. 1997. Agricultural intensification and ecosystem properties. Science 277:504–9.Google Scholar
- Möllmann C, Lindegren M, Blenckner T, Bergström L, Casini M, Diekmann R, Flinkman J, Müller-Karulis B, Neuenfeldt S, Schmidt JO, Tomczak MT, Voss R, Gårdmark A. 2013. Implementing ecosystem-based fisheries management: from single-species to integrated ecosystem assessment and advice for Baltic Sea fish stocks. ICES J Mar Sci 71:1187–97.Google Scholar
- Österblom H, Merrie A, Metian M, Boonstra W, Blenckner T, Watson JR, Rykaczewski RR, Ota Y, Sarmiento JL, Christensen V. 2013. Modeling social–ecological scenarios in marine systems. Bioscience 63:735–44.Google Scholar
- Ostrom E. 2009. A general framework for analyzing sustainability of social-ecological systems. Science 325:419–22.Google Scholar
- Pauly D, Christensen V, Dalsgaard J, Froese R, Torres F. 1998. Fishing down marine food webs. Science 279:860–3.Google Scholar
- Roberts C. 2007. The unnatural history of the sea. Washington DC: Island Press.Google Scholar
- Tuvendal M, Elmqvist T. 2011. Ecosystem services linking social and ecological systems: river brownification and the response of downstream stakeholders. Ecol Soc 16:21.Google Scholar
- Villasante S, Do Carme Garcia-Negro M, González-Laxe F, Rodriguez GR. 2011. Overfishing and the Common Fisheries Policy: (un)successful results from TAC regulation? Fish and Fisheries 12:34–50.Google Scholar
- Walters CJ, Maguire J-J. 1996. Lessons for stock assessment from the northern cod collapse. Rev Fish Biol Fish 137:125–37.Google Scholar
- Worm B, Barbier EB, Beaumont N, Duffy JE, Folke C, Halpern BS, Jackson JBC, Lotze HK, Micheli F, Palumbi SR, Sala E, Selkoe K, Stachowicz JJ, Watson R. 2006. Impacts of biodiversity loss on ocean ecosystem services. Science 314:787–90.Google Scholar