The Carbon Cycle of a Maritime Ancient Temperate Broadleaved Woodland at Seasonal and Annual Scales
- 460 Downloads
This study compares different approaches to quantifying the carbon cycle in a temperate deciduous forest at Wytham Woods in England, which is unusual in its maritime climate and mixed age structure, reflecting low levels of past management. We tested whether eddy covariance and biometric measurements gave consistent estimates of woodland productivity and ecosystem respiration at monthly and annual timescales. Biometric methods estimated gross primary productivity (GPP) as 22.0 ± 1.6 Mg C ha−1 y−1, close to the eddy covariance GPP value of 21.1 Mg C ha−1 y−1. Annual ecosystem respiration (R ECO) was similar, at 20.3 ± 1.5 Mg C ha−1 y−1 for biometric and 19.8 Mg C ha−1 y−1for eddy covariance. The seasonal cycle of monthly biometric and eddy covariance R ECO estimates also closely matched. Net primary productivity (NPP) was 7.0 ± 0.8 Mg C ha−1 y−1, 37% of which was allocated below ground. Leaf fluxes were the greatest component of NPP and R ECO. Ecosystem carbon-use efficiency (CUE = NPP/GPP) was 0.32 ± 0.04; low compared to many temperate broadleaved sites but close to values for old-growth sites. This may reflect the age of some trees, and/or the oceanic climate with relatively mild winters during which there can be substantial autotrophic maintenance respiration in winter but negligible growth. This study demonstrates that biometric measurements can provide robust estimates of site productivity and respiration and that eddy covariance and bottom-up measurements can be combined on seasonal and interannual timescales to enable a detailed understanding of the forest carbon cycle.
KeywordsGPP NPP ecosystem respiration component CUE allocation
Many thanks to everyone who assisted with this work, in particular Michèle Taylor and NERC for the Upper Seeds meteorological data collected under the ECN program, Dave McNeil for installing and maintaining the eddy covariance equipment, and Dr. Terhi Riutta and Earthwatch-HSBC volunteers for collecting and sorting the autumn 2008 leaf litter. KMF was supported by a NERC Studentship at Oxford University and the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology. Some manuscript editing took place whilst KMF was at SLU, Umeå, Sweden, funded by a Kempe Foundation stipend. YM is supported by the Jackson Foundation, the Oxford Martin School, and an Advanced Investigator Award of the European Research Council. Thorough, constructive comments by reviewers improved this manuscript and are greatly appreciated.
- Beard GR. 1993. The soils of Oxford University Field Station, Wytham. Soil Survey and Land Research Centre Silsoe (now National Soil Resources Institute, Cranfield University).Google Scholar
- Butt N, Campbell G, Malhi Y, Morecroft M, Fenn K, Thomas M. 2009. Initial results from establishment of a long-term broadleaf monitoring plot at Wytham Woods. Oxford, UK: University of Oxford. http://www.eci.ox.ac.uk/publications/downloads/butt09-wytham-woods.pdf. Accessed 14 October 2009.
- Chambers JQ, Tribuzy ES, Toledo LC, Crispim BF, Higuchi N, dos Santos J, Araújo AC, Kruijt B, Nobre AD, Trumbore SE. 2004. Respiration from a tropical forest ecosystem: partitioning of sources and low carbon use efficiency. Ecol Appl 14:72–88.Google Scholar
- Curtis PS, Vogel CS, Gough CM, Schmid HP, Su H-B, Bovard BD. 2005. Respiratory carbon losses and the carbon-use efficiency of a northern hardwood forest, 1999–2003. New Phytol 167:437–55.Google Scholar
- Dixon RK, Brown S, Houghton RA, Solomon AM, Trexler MC, Wisniewski J. 1994. Carbon pools and flux of global forest ecosystems. Science 263:185–90.Google Scholar
- Fahey TJ, Yavitt JB, Sherman RE, Groffman PM, Fisk MC, Maerz JC. 2011. Transport of carbon and nitrogen between litter and soil organic matter in a northern hardwood forest. Ecosystems 14:326–40.Google Scholar
- Falge E, Baldocchi D, Tenhunen J, Abinet M, Bakwin P, Berbigier P, Bernhofer C, Burba G, Clement R, Davis KJ, Elbers JA, Goldstein AH, Grelle A, Granier A, Gudmundsson J, Hollinger D, Kowalski AS, Katul G, Law BE, Malhi Y, Meyers Y, Monson RK, Munger JW, Oechel W, Paw UKT, Pilegaard K, Rannik Ü, Rebmann C, Suyker A, Valentini R, Wilson K, Wofsy S. 2002. Seasonality of ecosystem respiration and gross primary production as derived from FLUXNET measurements. Agric For Meteorol 113:53–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Goulden ML, Munger JW, Fan S-M, Daube BC, Wofsy SC. 1996. Measurements of carbon sequestration by long-term eddy covariance: methods and a critical evaluation of accuracy. Glob Change Biol 2:169–82.Google Scholar
- Hall JE, Kirby KJ, Whitbread AM. 2004. National vegetation classification: field guide to woodland. Peterborough: Joint Nature Conservation Committee.Google Scholar
- Keeland M, Young BD. 2009. Construction and installation of Dendrometer bands: http://www.nwrc.usgs.gov/Dendrometer/index.htm. Accessed 13 January 2009.
- Luyssaert S, Inglim I, Jung M, Richardson AD, Reichstein M, Papale D, Piao SL, Schulze E-D, Wingate L, Matteucci G, Aragão L, Aubinet M, Beer C, Bernhofer C, Black KG, Bonal D, Bonnefond J-M, Chambers J, Ciais P, Cook B, Davis KJ, Dolman AJ, Gielen B, Goulden M, Grace J, Granier A, Grelle A, Griffis T, Grünwald T, Guidolotti G, Hanson PJ, Harding R, Hollinger DY, Hutyra LR, Kolari P, Kruijt B, Kutsch W, Lagergren F, Laurila T, Law BE, LeMaire G, Lindroth A, Loustau D, Malhi Y, Mateu J, Migliavacca M, Misson L, Montagnani L, Moncreiff J, Moors E, Munger JW, Nikinmaa E, Ollinger SV, Pita G, Rebmann C, Roupsard O, Saigusa N, Sanz MJ, Seufert G, Sierra C, Smith M-L, Tang J, Valentini R, Vesala T, Janssens IA. 2007. CO2 balance of boreal, temperate, and tropical forests derived from a global database. Glob Change Biol 13:2509–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Malhi Y, Aragão LEOC, Metcalfe DB, Pavia R, Quesada CA, Almedia S, Anderson L, Brando P, Chambers JQ, DaCosta ACL, Hutyra LR, Oliveira PO, Patino S, Pyle EH, Robertson A, Teixeira LM. 2009. Comprehensive assessment of carbon productivity, allocation and storage in three Amazonian forests. Glob Change Biol 15:1255–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Malhi Y, Baldocchi DD, Jarvis PG. 1999. The carbon balance of tropical, temperate and boreal forests. Plant Cell Environ 22:715–40.Google Scholar
- Morecroft MD, Taylor ME, Oliver HR. 1998. Air and soil microclimates of deciduous woodland compared to an open site. Agric For Meteorol 90:141–56.Google Scholar
- Ngao J, Epron D, Brechet C, Granier A. 2005. Estimating the contribution of leaf litter decomposition to soil CO2 efflux in a beech forest using 13C-depleted litter. Glob Change Biol 11:1768–76.Google Scholar
- Reichstein M, Falge E, Baldocchi D, Papale D, Aubinet M, Berbigier P, Bernhofer C, Buchmann N, Gilmanov T, Granier A, Grünwald T, Havránková K, Ilvesniemi H, Janous D, Knohl A, Laurila T, Lohila A, Loustau D, Matteucci G, Meyers T, Miglietta F, Ourcival J-M, Pumpanen J, Rambal S, Rotenburg E, Sanz M, Tenhunen J, Seufert G, Vaccari F, Vesala T, Yakir D, Valentini R. 2005. On the separation of net ecosystem exchange into assimilation an ecosystem respiration: review and improved algorithm. Glob Change Biol 11:1424–39.Google Scholar
- Rubino M, Dungait JAJ, Evershed RP, Bertolini T, DeAngelis P, D’Onofrio A, Lagomarsino A, Lubritto C, Merola A, Terrasi F, Cotrufo MF. 2010. Carbon input belowground is the major C flux contributing to leaf litter mass loss: evidences from a 13C labelled-leaf litter experiment. Soil Biol Biochem 42:1009–16.Google Scholar
- Ryan MG, Lavigne MB, Gower ST. 1997. Annual carbon cost of autotrophic respiration in boreal forest ecosystems in relation to species and climate. J Geophys Res Atoms 102:28871–83.Google Scholar
- Savill P et al. 2010. Wytham Woods, Oxford’s Ecological Laboratory. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Stokes VJ. 2002. The impact of microenvironment, leaf development and phenology on annual carbon gain and water loss of two deciduous tree species. PhD thesis, Department of Biological Sciences, University of Essex.Google Scholar
- Tateno R, Hishi T, Takeda H. 2004. Above- and below-ground biomass and net primary production in a cool-temperate deciduous forest in relation to topographical changes in soil nitrogen. For Ecol Manage 193:297–306.Google Scholar
- Webb EK, Pearman GI, Leuning R. 1980. Correction of flux measurements for density effects due to heat and water vapour transfer. Quart J Royal Meteorol Soc 106:85–100.Google Scholar