Advertisement

Ecosystems

, Volume 17, Issue 6, pp 1095–1108 | Cite as

Seasonal Variation in the Capacity for Plant Trait Measures to Predict Grassland Carbon and Water Fluxes

  • Georg Everwand
  • Ellen L. Fry
  • Till Eggers
  • Pete Manning
Article

Abstract

There is a need for accurate predictions of ecosystem carbon (C) and water fluxes in field conditions. Previous research has shown that ecosystem properties can be predicted from community abundance-weighted means (CWM) of plant functional traits and measures of trait variability within a community (FDvar). The capacity for traits to predict carbon (C) and water fluxes, and the seasonal dependency of these trait-function relationships has not been fully explored. Here we measured daytime C and water fluxes over four seasons in grasslands of a range of successional ages in southern England. In a model selection procedure, we related these fluxes to environmental covariates and plant biomass measures before adding CWM and FDvar plant trait measures that were scaled up from measures of individual plants grown in greenhouse conditions. Models describing fluxes in periods of low biological activity contained few predictors, which were usually abiotic factors. In more biologically active periods, models contained more predictors, including plant trait measures. Field-based plant biomass measures were generally better predictors of fluxes than CWM and FDvar traits. However, when these measures were used in combination traits accounted for additional variation. Where traits were significant predictors their identity often reflected seasonal vegetation dynamics. These results suggest that database derived trait measures can improve the prediction of ecosystem C and water fluxes. Controlled studies and those involving more detailed flux measurements are required to validate and explore these findings, a worthwhile effort given the potential for using simple vegetation measures to help predict landscape-scale fluxes.

Keywords

biodiversity biomass climate community weighted mean ecosystem services evapotranspiration Functional diversity photosynthesis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was funded by the UK’s Natural Environment Research Council via the Centre for Population Biology and the ERASMUS Program of the EU. Thanks go to Antje Möhlmeyer, Sally Power, Nadine Prill, David Allen, Lena Everwand and Alex Hurst for support during data collection. Sarah Pierce and three anonymous reviewers provided advice and helpful comments on an earlier draft the manuscript.

Supplementary material

10021_2014_9779_MOESM1_ESM.docx (58 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 58 kb)

References

  1. Albert CH, Thuiller W, Yoccoz NG, Douzet R, Aubert S, Lavorel S. 2010. A multi-trait approach reveals the structure and the relative importance of intra- vs. interspecific variability in plant traits. Funct Ecol 24:1192–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allan E, Weisser W, Weigelt A, Roscher C, Fischer M, Hillebrand H. 2011. More diverse plant communities have higher functioning over time due to turnover in complementary dominant species. Proc Natl Acad Sci 108:17034–9.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baldocchi D, Falge E, Gu L, Olson R, Hollinger D, Running S, Anthoni P, Bernhofer C, Davis K, Evans R, Fuentes J, Goldstein A, Katul G, Law B, Lee X, Malhi Y, Meyers T, Munger W, Oechel W, Paw KT, Pilegaard K, Schmid HP, Valentini R, Verma S, Vesala T, Wilson K, Wofsy S. 2001. FLUXNET: a new tool to study the temporal and spatial variability of ecosystem-scale carbon dioxide, water vapor, and energy flux densities. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 82:2415–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bonan GB, Oleson KW, Fisher RA, Lasslop G, Reichstein M. 2012. Reconciling leaf physiological traits and canopy flux data: use of the TRY and FLUXNET databases in the community land model version 4. J Geophys Res 117:G02026.Google Scholar
  5. Cardinale BJ, Srivastava DS, Duffy JE, Wright JP, Downing AL, Sankaran M, Jouseau C. 2006. Effects of biodiversity on the functioning of trophic groups and ecosystems. Nature 443:3–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cardinale BJ, Wright JP, Cadotte MW, Carroll IT, Hector A, Srivastava DS, Loreau M, Weis JJ. 2007. Impacts of plant diversity on biomass production increase through time because of species complementarity. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:18123–8.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carey PD, Wallis S, Chamberlain PM, Cooper A, Emmett BA, Maskell LC, McCann T, Murphy J, Norton LR, Reynolds B, Scott WA, Simpson IC, Smart SM, Ullyett JM. 2008 Countryside survey: UK results from 2007. NERC/Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, p. 105 (CEH Project Number: C03259).Google Scholar
  8. Casanoves F, Pla L, Di Rienzo JA, Díaz S. 2010. FDiversity: a software package for the integrated analysis of functional diversity. Methods Ecol Evol 2:233–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cordlandwehr V, Meredith RL, Ozinga WA, Bekker RM, van Groenendael JM, Bakker JP. 2013. Do plant traits retrieved from a database accurately predict on-site measurements? J Ecol 101:662–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Craine JM, Wedin DA, Reich PB. 2001a. Grassland species effects on soil CO2 flux track the effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen. New Phytol 150:425–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Craine JM, Wedin DA, Reich PB. 2001b. The response of soil CO2 flux to changes in atmospheric CO2, nitrogen supply and plant diversity. Glob Change Biol 7:947–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Crawley MJ. 2005. The Flora of Berkshire. Harpenden: Brambleby Books.Google Scholar
  13. Crawley MJ. 2007. The R Book. Southern Gate: Wiley Ltd.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. De Boeck HJ, Lemmens CMHM, Vicca S, Van den Berge J, Van Dongen S, Janssens IA, Ceulemans R, Nijs I. 2007. How do climate warming and species richness affect CO2 fluxes in experimental grasslands? New Phytol 175:512–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. De Deyn GB, Cornelissen JHC, Bardgett RD. 2008. Plant functional traits and soil carbon sequestration in contrasting biomes. Ecol Lett 11:516–31.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. de Vries FT, Manning P, Tallowin JRB, Mortimer SR, Pilgrim ES, Harrison KA, Hobbs PJ, Quirk H, Shipley B, Cornelissen JHC, Kattge J, Bardgett RD. 2012. Abiotic drivers and plant traits explain landscape-scale patterns in soil microbial communities. Ecol Lett 15:1230–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Diaz S, Lavorel S, de Bello F, Quetier F, Grigulis K, Robson M. 2007. Incorporating plant functional diversity effects in ecosystem service assessments. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:20684–9.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Douma JC, de Haan MWA, Aerts R, Witte J-PM, van Bodegom PM. 2012. Succession-induced trait shifts across a wide range of NW European ecosystems are driven by light and modulated by initial abiotic conditions. J Ecol 100:366–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Eviner VT, Iii FSC, Vaughn CE. 2006. Seasonal variations in plant species effects on soil N and P dynamics. Ecology 87:974–86.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fry EL, Manning P, Allen DGP, Hurst A, Everwand G, Rimmler M, Power SA. 2013. Plant functional group composition modifies the effects of precipitation change on grassland ecosystem function. PLoS ONE 8:e57027.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Fry EL, Power SA, Manning P. 2014. Trait-based classification and manipulation of plant functional groups for biodiversity–ecosystem function experiments. J Veg Sci 25:248–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Garnier E, Cortez J, Billes G, Navas ML, Roumet C, Debussche M, Laurent G, Blanchard A, Aubry D, Bellmann A, Neill C, Toussaint JP. 2004. Plant functional markers capture ecosystem properties during secondary succession. Ecology 85:2630–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Grace J, Nichol C, Disney M, Lewis P, Quaife T, Bowyer P. 2007. Can we measure terrestrial photosynthesis from space directly, using spectral reflectance and fluorescence? Glob Change Biol 13:1484–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Grime JP. 1998. Benefits of plant diversity to ecosystems: immediate, filter and founder effects. J Ecol 86:902–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Hector A, Schmid B, Beierkuhnlein C, Caldeira MC, Diemer M, Dimitrakopoulos PG, Finn JA, Freitas H, Giller PS, Good J, Harris R, Högberg P, Huss-Danell K, Joshi J, Jumpponen A, Körner C, Leadley PW, Loreau M, Minns A, Mulder CPH, O’Donovan G, Otway SJ, Pereira JS, Prinz A, Read DJ, Scherer-Lorenzen M, Schulze E-D, Siamantziouras A-SD, Spehn EM, Terry AC, Troumbis AY, Woodward FI, Yachi S, Lawton JH. 1999. Plant diversity and productivity experiments in European grasslands. Science 286:1123–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hui D, Luo Y, Katul G. 2003. Partitioning interannual variability in net ecosystem exchange between climatic variability and functional change. Tree Physiol 23:433–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Johnson D, Phoenix GK, Grime JP. 2008. Plant community composition, not diversity, regulates soil respiration in grasslands. Biol Lett 4:345.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kattge J, Diaz S, Lavorel S, Prentice C, Leadley P, Boenisch G, Garnier E, Westoby M, Reich PB, Wright IJ, Cornelissen JHC, Violle C, Harrison SP, van Bodegom PM, Reichstein M, Enquist BJ, Soudzilovskaia NA, Ackerly DD, Anand M, Atkin O, Bahn M, Baker TR, Baldocchi D, Bekker R, Blanco CC, Blonder B, Bond WJ, Bradstock R, Bunker DE, Casanoves F, Cavender-Bares J, Chambers JQ, Chapin FSIII, Chave J, Coomes D, Cornwell WK, Craine JM, Dobrin BH, Duarte L, Durka W, Elser J, Esser G, Estiarte M, Fagan WF, Fang J, Fernandez-Mendez F, Fidelis A, Finegan B, Flores O, Ford H, Frank D, Freschet GT, Fyllas NM, Gallagher RV, Green WA, Gutierrez AG, Hickler T, Higgins SI, Hodgson JG, Jalili A, Jansen S, Joly CA, Kerkhoff AJ, Kirkup D, Kitajima K, Kleyer M, Klotz S, Knops JMH, Kramer K, Kuehn I, Kurokawa H, Laughlin D, Lee TD, Leishman M, Lens F, Lenz T, Lewis SL, Lloyd J, Llusia J, Louault F, Ma S, Mahecha MD, Manning P, Massad T, Medlyn BE, Messier J, Moles AT, Mueller SC, Nadrowski K, Naeem S, Niinemets U, Noellert S, Nueske A, Ogaya R, Oleksyn J, Onipchenko VG, Onoda Y, Ordonez J, Overbeck G, Ozinga WA, Patino S, Paula S, Pausas JG, Penuelas J, Phillips OL, Pillar V, Poorter H, Poorter L, Poschlod P, Prinzing A, Proulx R, Rammig A, Reinsch S, Reu B, Sack L, Salgado-Negre B, Sardans J, Shiodera S, Shipley B, Siefert A, Sosinski E, Soussana JF, Swaine E, Swenson N, Thompson K, Thornton P, Waldram M, Weiher E, White M, White S, Wright SJ, Yguel B, Zaehle S, Zanne AE, Wirth C. 2011. TRY—a global database of plant traits. Glob Change Biol 17:2905–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Kazakou E, Violle C, Roumet C, Navas ML, Vile D, Kattge J, Garnier E. 2014. Are trait based species rankings consistent across data sets and spatial scales? J Veg Sci 25:235–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kichenin E, Wardle DA, Peltzer DA, Morse CW, Freschet GT. 2013. Contrasting effects of plant inter- and intraspecific variation on community-level trait measures along an environmental gradient. Funct Ecol 27:1254–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kolari P, Pumpanen J, Kulmala L, Ilvesniemi H, Nikinmaa E, Gronholm T, Hari P. 2006. Forest floor vegetation plays an important role in photosynthetic production of boreal forests. For Ecol Manag 221:241–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kunert N, Schwendenmann L, Potvin C, Hölscher D. 2012. Tree diversity enhances tree transpiration in a Panamanian forest plantation. J Appl Ecol 49:135–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Laughlin DC. 2011. Nitrification is linked to dominant leaf traits rather than functional diversity. J Ecol 99:1091–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lavorel S, Garnier E. 2002. Predicting changes in community composition and ecosystem functioning from plant traits: revisiting the Holy Grail. Funct Ecol 16:545–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lavorel S, Grigulis K, Lamarque P, Colace MP, Garden D, Girel J, Pellet G, Douzet R. 2011. Using plant functional traits to understand the landscape distribution of multiple ecosystem services. J Ecol 99:135–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Loreau M, Hector A. 2001. Partitioning selection and complementarity in biodiversity experiments. Nature 412:72–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ma S, Baldocchi DD, Mambelli S, Dawson TE. 2011. Are temporal variations of leaf traits responsible for seasonal and inter-annual variability in ecosystem CO2 exchange? Funct Ecol 25:258–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Maestre FT, Quero JL, Gotelli NJ, Escudero A, Ochoa V, Delgado-Baquerizo M, García-Gómez M, Bowker MA, Soliveres S, Escolar C, García-Palacios P, Berdugo M, Valencia E, Gozalo B, Gallardo A, Aguilera L, Arredondo T, Blones J, Boeken B, Bran D, Conceição AA, Cabrera O, Chaieb M, Derak M, Eldridge DJ, Espinosa CI, Florentino A, Gaitán J, Gatica MG, Ghiloufi W, Gómez-González S, Gutiérrez JR, Hernández RM, Huang X, Huber-Sannwald E, Jankju M, Miriti M, Monerris J, Mau RL, Morici E, Naseri K, Ospina A, Polo V, Prina A, Pucheta E, Ramírez-Collantes DA, Romão R, Tighe M, Torres-Díaz C, Val J, Veiga JP, Wang D, Zaady E. 2012. Plant species richness and ecosystem multifunctionality in global drylands. Science 335:214–18.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Manning P, Putwain P, Webb N. 2006. The role of soil phosphorus sorption characteristics in the functioning and stability of lowland heath ecosystems. Biogeochemistry 81:205–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Mason NWH, MacGillivray K, Steel JB, Wilson JB. 2003. An index of functional diversity. J Veg Sci 14:571–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Michel P, Lee WG, During HJ, Cornelissen JHC. 2012. Species traits and their non-additive interactions control the water economy of bryophyte cushions. J Ecol 100:222–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Migliavacca M, Reichstein M, Richardson AD, Colombo R, Sutton MA, Lasslop G, Tomelleri E, Wohlfahrt G, Carvalhais N, Cescatti A, Mahecha MD, Montagnani L, Papale D, Zaehle S, Arain A, Arneth A, Black TA, Carrara A, Dore S, Gianelle D, Helfter C, Hollinger D, Kutsch WL, Lafleur PM, Nouvellon Y, Rebmann C, Da Rocha HR, Rodeghiero M, Roupsard O, SebastiÀ M-T, Seufert G, Soussana J-F, Van Der Molen MK. 2011. Semiempirical modeling of abiotic and biotic factors controlling ecosystem respiration across eddy covariance sites. Glob Change Biol 17:390–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Milcu A, Heim A, Ellis R, Scheu S, Manning P. 2011. Identification of general patterns of nutrient and labile carbon control on soil carbon dynamics across a successional gradient. Ecosystems 14:710–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Milcu A, Roscher R, Gessler A, Dörte B, Gockele A, Gunderle M, Landais D, Piel C, Escape C, Devidal S, Ravel O, Buchmann N, Gleixner G, Hildebrandt A, Roy J. 2014. Functional diversity of leaf nitrogen concentrations drives grassland carbon fluxes. Ecol Lett. doi: 10.1111/ele.12243.
  45. Mokany K, Ash JL. 2008. Are traits measured on pot grown plants representative of those in natural communities? J Veg Sci 19:119–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Nakagawa S, Schielzeth H. 2013. A general and simple method for obtaining R2 from generalized linear mixed-effects models. Methods Ecol Evol 4:133–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Niu S, Luo Y, Fei S, Yuan W, Schimel D, Law BE, Ammann C, Altaf Arain M, Arneth A, Aubinet M, Barr A, Beringer J, Bernhofer C, Andrew Black T, Buchmann N, Cescatti A, Chen J, Davis KJ, Dellwik E, Desai AR, Etzold S, Francois L, Gianelle D, Gielen B, Goldstein A, Groenendijk M, Gu L, Hanan N, Helfter C, Hirano T, Hollinger DY, Jones MB, Kiely G, Kolb TE, Kutsch WL, Lafleur P, Lawrence DM, Li L, Lindroth A, Litvak M, Loustau D, Lund M, Marek M, Martin TA, Matteucci G, Migliavacca M, Montagnani L, Moors E, William Munger J, Noormets A, Oechel W, Olejnik J, Kyaw Tha Paw U, Pilegaard K, Rambal S, Raschi A, Scott RL, Seufert G, Spano D, Stoy P, Sutton MA, Varlagin A, Vesala T, Weng E, Wohlfahrt G, Yang B, Zhang Z, Zhou X. 2012. Thermal optimality of net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide and underlying mechanisms. New Phytol 194:775–83.Google Scholar
  48. Ordonez A. 2013. Global meta-analysis of trait consistency of non-native plants between their native and introduced areas. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 23:264–73.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Ostle NJ, Smith P, Fisher R, Ian Woodward F, Fisher JB, Smith JU, Galbraith D, Levy P, Meir P, McNamara NP, Bardgett RD. 2009. Integrating plant–soil interactions into global carbon cycle models. J Ecol 97:851–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Pinheiro JC, Bates DM. 2000. Mixed-effects models in S and S-PLUS. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. R-Development-Core-Team. 2010. R: a language and environment for statistical computing. Vienna, Austria: R foundation for statistical computing.Google Scholar
  52. Rodwell JS. 1992. British plant communities. Grasslands and montane communities, Vol. 3Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Sala OE, Chapin FS, Armesto JJ, Berlow E, Bloomfield J, Dirzo R, Huber-Sanwald E, Huenneke LF, Jackson RB, Kinzig A, Leemans R, Lodge DM, Mooney HA, Oesterheld M, Poff NL, Sykes MT, Walker BH, Walker M, Wall DH. 2000. Biodiversity—global biodiversity scenarios for the year 2100. Science 287:1770–4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sapijanskas J, Loreau M. 2010. Cascading extinctions, functional complementarity, and selection in two-trophic-level model communities: a trait-based mechanistic approach. J Theor Biol 267:375–87.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Schumacher J, Roscher C. 2009. Differential effects of functional traits on aboveground biomass in semi-natural grasslands. Oikos 118:1659–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Sitch S, Smith B, Prentice IC, Arneth A, Bondeau A, Cramer W, Kaplan JO, Levis S, Lucht W, Sykes MT, Thonicke K, Venevsky S. 2003. Evaluation of ecosystem dynamics, plant geography and terrestrial carbon cycling in the LPJ dynamic global vegetation model. Glob Change Biol 9:161–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Soudzilouvskia NA, Elumeeva TG, Onipchenko VG, Shidakov II, Salpagarova FS, Khubiev AB, Tekeev DK, Cornelissen JHC. 2013. Functional traits predict relationship between plant abundance dynamic and long-term climate warming. Proc Natl Acad Sci 110:18180–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Tjoelker MG, Craine JM, Wedin D, Reich PB, Tilman D. 2005. Linking leaf and root trait syndromes among 39 grassland and savannah species. New Phytol 167:493–508.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Verheijen LM, Brovkin V, Aerts R, Bönisch G, Cornelissen JHC, Kattge J, Reich PB, Wright IJ, van Bodegom PM. 2013. Impacts of trait variation through observed trait–climate relationships on performance of an Earth system model: a conceptual analysis. Biogeosciences 10:5497–515.Google Scholar
  60. Vojtech E, Loreau M, Yachi S, Spehn EM, Hector A. 2008. Light partitioning in experimental grass communities. Oikos 117:1351–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wagner S, Madsen P, Ammer C. 2009. Evaluation of different approaches for modelling individual tree seedling height growth. Trees Struct Funct 23:701–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Williams CA, Reichstein M, Buchmann N, Baldocchi D, Beer C, Schwalm C, Wohlfahrt G, Hasler N, Bernhofer C, Foken T, Papale D, Schymanski S, Schaefer K. 2012. Climate and vegetation controls on the surface water balance: synthesis of evapotranspiration measured across a global network of flux towers. Water Resour Res 48:W06523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Wohlfahrt G, Anderson-Dunn M, Bahn M, Balzarolo M, Berninger F, Campbell C, Carrara A, Cescatti A, Christensen T, Dore S, Eugster W, Friborg T, Furger M, Gianelle D, Gimeno C, Hargreaves K, Hari P, Haslwanter A, Johansson T, Marcolla B, Milford C, Nagy Z, Nemitz E, Rogiers N, Sanz M, Siegwolf R, Susiluoto S, Sutton M, Tuba Z, Ugolini F, Valentini R, Zorer R, Cernusca A. 2008. Biotic, abiotic, and management controls on the net ecosystem CO2 exchange of European mountain grassland ecosystems. Ecosystems 11:1338–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Wright IJ, Reich PB, Westoby M, Ackerly DD, Baruch Z, Bongers F, Cavender-Bares J, Chapin T, Cornelissen JHC, Diemer M, Flexas J, Garnier E, Groom PK, Gulias J, Hikosaka K, Lamont BB, Lee T, Lee W, Lusk C, Midgley JJ, Navas M-L, Niinemets U, Oleksyn J, Osada N, Poorter H, Poot P, Prior L, Pyankov VI, Roumet C, Thomas SC, Tjoelker MG, Veneklaas EJ, Villar R. 2004. The worldwide leaf economics spectrum. Nature 428:821–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Georg Everwand
    • 1
    • 2
  • Ellen L. Fry
    • 3
  • Till Eggers
    • 4
    • 5
  • Pete Manning
    • 2
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Crop Sciences, AgroecologyGeorg-August-University GöttingenGöttingenGermany
  2. 2.NERC Centre for Population BiologyImperial College of Science and TechnologyAscotUK
  3. 3.Department of Life SciencesImperial College of Science and TechnologyAscotUK
  4. 4.BASF SE, Global Research Crop Protection, Data Management and BiometricsLimburgerhofGermany
  5. 5.Experimental Ecology Group, Department for Biology and ChemistryUniversity of OsnabrückOsnabrückGermany
  6. 6.Institute for Plant SciencesUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations