Ecosystems

, Volume 15, Issue 6, pp 867–880 | Cite as

Pharmaceutical Compounds and Ecosystem Function: An Emerging Research Challenge for Aquatic Ecologists

Article

Abstract

The number of anthropogenic compounds that occur in aquatic ecosystems today is in the thousands, many at trace concentrations. One group of compounds that has captured the interest of both the scientific community and the general public is pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs), for example, hormones, chemotherapy drugs, antihistamines, stimulants, antimicrobials and various cosmetic additives. Toxicology of some PPCPs is currently understood, but their effect on ecological structure and function of aquatic ecosystems is largely unknown. We review sources and fates of these compounds in aquatic ecosystems and discuss how methods developed to study aquatic ecosystem ecology can contribute to our understanding of the influence of PPCPs on aquatic ecosystems. We argue that aquatic ecology has a well-developed tool kit for measuring the transformation, fate, and transport of solutes using assays and experiments and that these methods could be employed to investigate how PPCPs impact ecological function. We discuss the details of these approaches and conclude that application of existing ecological methods to the study of this issue could substantially improve our understanding of the effect of these compounds in aquatic ecosystems.

Keywords

methods ecotoxicology biogeochemical processes large-scale experiments nutrient spiraling aquatic ecosystems 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Peter Groffman, Heather Bechtold, Daniel Schindler and 3 anonymous reviewers for their suggestions on earlier drafts of this manuscript. Thank you to the scientific staff at the Cary Institute for discussions about the direction of this manuscript.

References

  1. Backhaus T, Faust M. 2012. Predictive environmental risk assessment of chemical mixtures: a conceptual framework. Environ Sci Technol 46:2564–73.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Backhaus T, Porsbring T, Arrhenius A, Brosche S, Johansson P, Blanck H. 2011. Single-substance and mixture toxicity of five pharmaceuticals and personal care products to marine periphyton communities. Environ Toxicol Chem 30:2030–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barber LB, Brown GK, Nettesheim TG, Murphy EW, Bartell SE, Schoenfuss HL. 2011. Effects of biologically-active chemical mixtures on fish in a wastewater-impacted urban stream. Sci Total Environ 409:4720–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barnes KK, Christenson SC, Kolpin DW, Focazio M, Furlong ET, Zaugg SD, Meyer MT, Barber LB. 2004. Pharmaceuticals and other organic waste water contaminants within a leachate plume downgradient of a municipal landfill. Ground Water Monit Rem 24:119–26.Google Scholar
  5. Bartelt-Hunt SL, Snow DD, Damon-Powell T, Brown DL, Prasai G, Schwarz M, Kolok AS. 2011. Quantitative evaluation of laboratory uptake rates for pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and steroid hormones using POCIS. Environ Toxicol Chem 30(6):1412–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Beaulieu JJ, Tank JL, Hamilton SK, Wollheim WM, Hall RO, Mulholland PJ, Peterson BJ, Ashkenas LR, Cooper LW, Dahm CN, Dodds WK, Grimm NB, Johnson SL, McDowell WH, Poole GC, Valett HM, Arango CP, Bernot MJ, Burgin AJ, Crenshaw CL, Helton AM, Johnson LT, O'Brien JM, Potter JD, Sheibley RW, Sobota DJ, Thomas SM. 2011. Nitrous oxide emission from denitrification in stream and river networks. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 108:214–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beketov MA, Liess M. 2012. Ecotoxicology and macroecology—time for integration. Environ Pollut 162:247–54.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bernhardt ES, Colman BP, Hochella MF, Cardinale BJ, Nisbet RM, Richardson CJ, Yin LY. 2010. An ecological perspective on nanomaterial impacts in the environment. J Environ Qual 39:1954–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Berninger JP, Du BW, Connors KA, Eytcheson SA, Kolkmeier MA, Prosser KN, Valenti TW, Chambliss CK, Brooks BW. 2011. Effects of the antihistamine diphenhydramine on selected aquatic organisms. Environ Toxicol Chem 30:2065–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brun GL, Bernier M, Losier R, Doe K, Jackman P, Lee HB. 2006. Pharmaceutically active compounds in Atlantic Canadian sewage treatment plant effluents and receiving waters, and potential for environmental effects as measured by acute and chronic aquatic toxicity. Environ Toxicol Chem 25:2163–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bunch AR, Bernot MJ. 2011. Distribution of nonprescription pharmaceuticals in central Indiana streams and effects on sediment microbial activity. Ecotoxicology 20:97–109.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bundschuh M, Hahn T, Gessner MO, Schulz R. 2009. Antibiotics as a chemical stressor affecting an aquatic decomposer–detritivore system. Environ Toxicol Chem 28:197–203.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Burgin AJ, Hamilton SK. 2008. NO3 -driven SO4 2− production in freshwater ecosystems: implications for N and S cycling. Ecosystems 11:908–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Burkholder J, Libra B, Weyer P, Heathcote S, Koplin D, Thorne P, Wichman M. 2007. Impacts of waste from concentrated animal feeding operations on water quality. Environ Health Perspect 115:308–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Capps KA, Booth MT, Collins SM, Davison MA, Moslemi JM, El-Sabaawi RW, Simonis JL, Flecker AS. 2011. Nutrient diffusing substrata: a field comparison of commonly used methods to assess nutrient limitation. J North Am Benthol Soc 30:522–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Carpenter SR. 1990. Large-scale perturbations: opportunities for innovation. Ecology 71:2038–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Carpenter SR. 1996. Microcosm experiments have limited relevance for community and ecosystem ecology. Ecology 77:677–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Carpenter SR. 1998. The need for large-scale experiments to assess and predict the response of ecosystems to perturbation. In: Pace ML, Groffman PM, Eds. Successes, limitations and frontiers in ecosystem science. New York: Springer. p 287–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Carpenter SR, Frost TM, Heisey D, Kratz TK. 1989. Randomized intervention analysis and the interpretation of whole-ecosystem experiments. Ecology 70:1142–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Carrara C, Ptacek CJ, Robertson WD, Blowes DW, Moncur MC, Sverko E, Backus S. 2008. Fate of pharmaceutical and trace organic compounds in three septic system plumes, Ontario, Canada. Environ Sci Technol 42(8):2805–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cole JJ, Prairie YT, Caraco NF, McDowell WH, Tranvik LJ, Striegl RG, Duarte CM, Kortelainen P, Downing JA, Middelburg JJ, Melack J. 2007. Plumbing the global carbon cycle: integrating inland waters into the terrestrial carbon budget. Ecosystems 10:171–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Conn KE, Lowe KS, Drewes JE, Hoppe-Jones C, Tucholke MB. 2010. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and consumer product chemicals in raw wastewater and septic tank effluent from single-family homes. Environ Eng Sci 27:347–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Corcoran J, Winter MJ, Tyler CR. 2010. Pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment: a critical review of the evidence for health effects in fish. Crit Rev Toxicol 40:287–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Crane M, Watts C, Boucard T. 2006. Chronic aquatic environmental risks from exposure to human pharmaceuticals. Sci Total Environ 367:23–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Cross WF, Baxter CV, Donner KC, Rosi-Marshall EJ, Kennedy TA, Hall RO Jr, Wellard-Kelly HA, Rogers RS. 2011. Ecosystem ecology meets adaptive management: food web response to a controlled flood on the Colorado River, Glen Canyon. Ecol Appl 21:2016–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cushing CE, Minshall GW, Newbold JD. 1993. Transport dynamics of fine particulate organic matter in two Idaho streams. Limnol Oceanogr 38:1101–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Edwards M, Topp E, Metcalfe CD, Li H, Gottschall N, Bolton P, Curnoe W, Payne M, Beck A, Kleywegt S, Lapen DR. 2009. Pharmaceutical and personal care products in tile drainage following surface spreading and injection of dewatered municipal biosolids to an agricultural field. Sci Total Environ 407(14):4220–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ensign SH, Doyle MW. 2006. Nutrient spiraling in streams and river networks. J Geophys Res Biogeosci 111:13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Fairchild GW, Lowe RL, Richardson WB. 1985. Algal periphyton growth on nutrient-diffusing substrates: an in situ bioassay. Ecology 66:465–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fatta-Kassinos D, Vasquez MI, Kummerer K. 2011. Transformation products of pharmaceuticals in surface waters and wastewater formed during photolysis and advanced oxidation processes—degradation, elucidation of byproducts and assessment of their biological potency. Chemosphere 85:693–709.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Fick J, Soderstrom H, Lindberg RH, Phan C, Tysklind M, Larsson DGJ. 2009. Contamination of surface, ground, and drinking water from pharmaceutical production. Environ Toxicol Chem 28(12):2522–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Findlay SEG. 2010. Stream microbial ecology. J North Am Benthol Soc 29(1):170–81.Google Scholar
  33. Findlay SEG, Mulholland PJ, Hamilton SK, Tank JL, Bernot MJ, Burgin AJ, Crenshaw CL, Dodds WK, Grimm NB, McDowell WH, Potter JD, Sobota DJ. 2011. Cross-stream comparison of substrate-specific denitrification potential. Biogeochemistry 104:381–92.Google Scholar
  34. Fleishman E, Blockstein DE, Hall JA, Mascia MB, Rudd MA, Scott JM, Sutherland WJ, Bartuska AM, Brown AG, Christen CA, Clement JP, DellaSala D, Duke CS, Eaton M, Fiske SJ, Gosnell H, Haney JC, Hutchins M, Klein ML, Marqusee J, Noon BR, Nordgren JR, Orbuch PM, Powell J, Quarles SP, Saterson KA, Savitt CC, Stein BA, Webster MS, Vedder A. 2011. Top 40 priorities for science to inform US conservation and management policy. Bioscience 61:290–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Focazio MJ, Kolpin DW, Barnes KK, Furlong ET, Meyer MT, Zaugg SD, Barber LB, Thurman ME. 2008. A national reconnaissance for pharmaceuticals and other organic wastewater contaminants in the United States—II) untreated drinking water sources. Sci Total Environ 402:201–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fong P, Molnar N. 2008. Norfluoxetine induces spawning and parturition in estuarine and freshwater bivalves. Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 81:535–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Ghosh GC, Nakada N, Yamashita N, Tanaka H. 2010. Oseltamivir carboxylate, the active metabolite of oseltamivir phosphate (Tamiflu), detected in sewage discharge and river water in Japan. Environ Health Perspect 118:103–7.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Gibson CA, Meyer JL. 2007. Nutrient uptake in a large urban river. J Am Water Resour Assoc 43:576–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Giller KE, Witter E, McGrath SP. 1998. Toxicity of heavy metals to microorganisms and microbial processes in agricultural soils: a review. Soil Biol Biochem 30:1389–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Gunnarsson L, Jauhiainen A, Kristiansson E, Nerman O, Larsson DGJ. 2008. Evolutionary conservation of human drug targets in organisms used for environmental risk assessments. Environ Sci Technol 42:5807–13.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Halling-Sorensen B, Nielsen SN, Lanzky PF, Ingerslev F, Lutzhoft HCH, Jorgensen SE. 1998. Occurrence, fate and effects of pharmaceutical substances in the environment—a review. Chemosphere 36:357–94.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Harris SH, Istok JD, Suflita JM. 2005. Changes in organic matter biodegradability influencing sulfate reduction in an aquifer contaminated by landfill leachate. Microb Ecol 51:535–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Hashemzadeh-Gargari H, Freschi JE. 1992. Histamine activates chloride conductance in motor neurons of the lobster cardiac ganglion. J Neurophysiol 68:9–15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Hayasaka D, Korenaga T, Sánchez-Bayo F, Goka K. 2012. Differences in ecological impacts of systemic insecticides with different physicochemical properties on biocenosis of experimental paddy fields. Ecotoxicology 21:191–201.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hill BH, McCormick FH, Harvey BC, Johnson SL, Warren ML, Elonen CM. 2010. Microbial enzyme activity, nutrient uptake, and nutrient limitation in forested streams. Freshw Biol 55:1005–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hoellein TJ, Tank JL, Kelly JJ, Rosi-Marshall EJ. 2010. Seasonal variation in nutrient limitation of microbial biofilms colonizing organic and inorganic substrata in streams. Hydrobiologia 649:331–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hoppe PD, Rosi-Marshall EJ, Bechtold HA. 2012. The antihistamine cimetidine alters invertebrate growth and production in artificial streams. J Freshw Sci 31:379–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hörsing M, Ledin A, Grabic R, Fick J, Tysklind M, Jansen JL, Andersen HR. 2011. Determination of sorption of seventy-five pharmaceuticals in sewage sludge. Water Res 45:4470–82.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Istok JD, Field JA, Schroth MH. 2001. In situ determination of subsurface microbial enzyme kinetics. Ground Water 39:348–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Katz BG, Griffin DW, McMahon PB, Harden HS, Wade E, Hicks RW, Chanton JP. 2010. Fate of effluent-borne contaminants beneath septic tank drainfields overlying a karst aquifer. J Environ Qual 39:1181–95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kidd KA, Blanchfield PJ, Mills KH, Palace VP, Evans RE, Lazorchak JM, Flick RW. 2007. Collapse of a fish population after exposure to a synthetic estrogen. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 104(21):8897–901.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kim Y, Choi K, Jung JY, Park S, Kim PG, Park J. 2007. Aquatic toxicity of acetaminophen, carbamazepine, cimetidine, diltiazem and six major sulfonamides, and their potential ecological risks in Korea. Environ Int 33:370–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kinney CA, Furlong ET, Kolpin DW, Burkhardt MR, Zaugg SD, Werner SL, Bossio JP, Benotti MJ. 2008. Bioaccumulation of pharmaceuticals and other anthropogenic waste indicators in earthworms from agricultural soil amended with biosolid or swine manure. Environ Sci Technol 42:1863–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kolpin DW, Furlong ET, Meyer MT, Thurman EM, Zaugg SD, Barber LB, Buxton HT. 2002. Pharmaceuticals, hormones, and other organic wastewater contaminants in US streams, 1999–2000: a national reconnaissance. Environ Sci Technol 36:1202–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kuchta SL, Cessna AJ. 2009. Fate of lincomycin in snowmelt runoff from manure-amended pasture. Chemosphere 76:439–46.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kuchta SL, Cessna AJ, Elliott JA, Peru KM, Headley JV. 2009. Transport of lincomycin to surface and ground water from manure-amended cropland. J Environ Qual 38:1719–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kunkel U, Radke M. 2011. A reactive tracer test to evaluate the fate of pharmaceuticals in rivers. Environ Sci Technol 45:6296–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lajeunesse A, Gagnon C, Gagne F, Louis S, Cejka P, Sauve S. 2011. Distribution of antidepressants and their metabolites in brook trout exposed to municipal wastewaters before and after ozone treatment—evidence of biological effects. Chemosphere 83:564–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lapen DR, Topp E, Metcalfe CD, Li H, Edwards M, Gottschall N, Bolton P, Curnoe W, Payne M, Beck A. 2008. Pharmaceutical and personal care products in tile drainage following land application of municipal biosolids. Sci Total Environ 399:50–65.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Larsbo M, Lapen DR, Topp E, Metcalfe C, Abbaspour KC, Fenner K. 2009. Simulation of pharmaceutical and personal care product transport to tile drains after biosolids application. J Environ Qual 38(3):1274–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Larsson DGJ, de Pedro C, Paxeus N. 2007. Effluent from drug manufactures contains extremely high levels of pharmaceuticals. J Hazard Mater 148(3):751–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Li ZH, Vzlabek V, Velisek J, Grabic R, Machova J, Kolarova J, Li P, Randak T. 2010. Acute toxicity of carbamazepine to juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): effects on antioxidant responses, hematological parameters and hepatic EROD. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 74:319–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Likens GE. 1998. Limitations to intellectual progress in ecosystem science. In: Pace ML, Groffman PM, Eds. Successes, limitations and frontiers in ecosystem science. 7th Cary conference. Institute of Ecosystem Studies, Millbrook, New York. New York (NY): Springer. pp 247–71.Google Scholar
  64. Likens GE. 2004. Biogeochemistry: some opportunities and challenges for the future. Water Air Soil Pollut Focus 4:5–24.Google Scholar
  65. Likens GE, Bormann FH, Johnson NM, Fisher DW, Pierce RS. 1970. Effects of forest cutting and herbicide treatment on nutrient budgets in the Hubbard Brook watershed-ecosystem. Ecol Monogr 40:23–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lutz BD, Bernhardt ES, Roberts BJ, Mulholland PJ. 2011. Examining the coupling of carbon and nitrogen cycles in Appalachian streams: the role of dissolved organic nitrogen. Ecology 92:720–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. MacLeod SL, McClure EL, Wong CS. 2007. Laboratory calibration and field deployment of the Polar organic chemical integrative sampler for pharmaceuticals and personal care products in wastewater and surface water. Environ Toxicol Chem 26:2517–29.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Marcarelli AM, Baxter CV, Mineau MM, Hall RO. 2011. Quantity and quality: unifying food web and ecosystem perspectives on the role of resource subsidies in freshwaters. Ecology 92:1215–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Marti E, Aumatell J, Godé L, Poch M, Sabater F. 2004. Nutrient retention efficiency in streams receiving inputs from wastewater treatment plants. J Environ Qual 33:285–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Meyer JL, Likens GE. 1979. Transport and transformation of phosphorus in a forest stream ecosystem. Ecology 60:1255–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Miller J, Georgian T. 1992. Estimation of fine particulate transport in streams using pollen as a seston analog. J North Am Benthol Soc 11:172–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Monteiro SC, Boxall ABA. 2010. Occurrence and fate of human pharmaceuticals in the environment. In: Whitacre DM, Ed. Reviews of environmental contamination and toxicology, Vol. 202. New York: Springer. p 153–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mulholland PJ, Hall RO, Sobota DJ, Dodds WK, Findlay SEG, Grimm NB, Hamilton SK, McDowell WH, O’Brien JM, Tank JL, Ashkenas LR, Cooper LW, Dahm CN, Gregory SV, Johnson SL, Meyer JL, Peterson BJ, Poole GC, Valett HM, Webster JR, Arango CP, Beaulieu JJ, Bernot MJ, Burgin AJ, Crenshaw CL, Helton AM, Johnson LT, Niederlehner BR, Potter JD, Sheibley RW, Thomas SM. 2009. Nitrate removal in stream ecosystems measured by 15N addition experiments: denitrification. Limnol Oceanogr 54:666–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Munoz I, Lopez-Doval JC, Ricart M, Villagrasa M, Brix R, Geiszinger A, Ginebreda A, Guasch H, de Alda MJL, Romani AM, Sabater S, Barcelo D. 2009. Bridging levels of pharmaceuticals in river water with biological community structure in the Llobregat river basin (northeast Spain). Environ Toxicol Chem 28:2706–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Musson SE, Townsend TG. 2009. Pharmaceutical compound content of municipal solid waste. J Hazard Mater 162(2–3):730–5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Newbold JD, Elwood JW, Oneill RV, Vanwinkle W. 1981. Measuring nutrient spiraling in streams. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 38:860–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Newbold JD, Thomas SA, Minshall GW, Cushing CE, Georgian T. 2005. Deposition, benthic residence, and resuspension of fine organic particles in a mountain stream. Limnol Oceanogr 50:1571–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Novak PJ, Arnold WA, Blazer VS, Halden RU, Klaper RD, Kolpin DW, Kriebel D, Love NG, Martinovic-Weigelt D, Patisaul HB, Snyder SA, vom Saal FS, Weisbrod AV, Swackhamer DL. 2011. On the need for a national (US) research program to elucidate the potential risks to human health and the environment posed by contaminants of emerging concern. Environ Sci Technol 45:3829–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Oetken M, Nentwig G, Loffler D, Ternes T, Oehlmann J. 2005. Effects of pharmaceuticals on aquatic invertebrates. Part I. The antiepileptic drug carbamazepine. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 49:353–61.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Olmstead AW, LeBlanc G. 2005. Toxicity assessment of environmentally relevant pollutant mixtures using a heuristic model. Integr Environ Assess Manag 1(2):114–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ort C, Lawrence MG, Rieckermann J, Joss A. 2010. Sampling for pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and illicit drugs in wastewater systems: are your conclusions valid? A critical review. Environ Sci Technol 44:6024–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Pailler JY, Guignard C, Meyer B, Iffly JF, Pfister L, Hoffmann L, Krein A. 2009. Behaviour and fluxes of dissolved antibiotics, analgesics and hormones during flood events in a small heterogeneous catchment in the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. Water Air Soil Pollut 203:79–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Peterson BJ, Wollheim WM, Mulholland PJ, Webster JR, Meyer JL, Tank JL, Marti E, Bowden WB, Valett HM, Hershey AE, McDowell WH, Dodds WK, Hamilton SK, Gregory S, Morrall DD. 2001. Control of nitrogen export from watersheds by headwater streams. Science 292:86–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Phillips PJ, Smith SG, Kolpin DW, Zaugg SD, Buxton HT, Furlong ET, Esposito K, Stinson B. 2010. Pharmaceutical formulation facilities as sources of opioids and other pharmaceuticals to wastewater treatment plant effluents. Environ Sci Technol 44(13):4910–16.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Proia L, Morin S, Peipoch M, Romani AM, Sabater S. 2011. Resistance and recovery of river biofilms receiving short pulses of Triclosan and Diuron. Sci Total Environ 409:3129–37.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Quinlan EL, Nietch CT, Blocksom K, Lazorchak JM, Batt AL, Griffiths R, Klemm DJ. 2011. Temporal dynamics of periphyton exposed to tetracycline in stream mesocosms. Environ Sci Technol 45:10684–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Ramaswamy J, Prasher SO, Patel RM, Hussain SA, Barrington SF. 2010. The effect of composting on the degradation of a veterinary pharmaceutical. Bioresour Technol 101(7):2294–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Ramirez AJ, Mottaleb MA, Brooks BW, Chambliss CK. 2007. Analysis of pharmaceuticals in fish using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Anal Chem 79:3155–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ramirez AJ, Brain RA, Usenko S, Mottaleb MA, O'Donnell JG, Stahl LL, Wathen JB, Snyder BD, Pitt JL, Perez-Hurtado P, Dobbins LL, Brooks BW, Chambliss CK. 2009. Occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products in fishes: results of a national pilot study in the United States. Environ Toxicol Chem 28:2587–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Relyea RA. 2006. The effects of pesticides, pH, and predatory stress on amphibians under mesocosm conditions. Ecotoxicology 15:503–11.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Relyea R, Hoverman J. 2006. Assessing the ecology in ecotoxicology: a review and synthesis in freshwater systems. Ecol Lett 9:1157–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Riva-Murray K, Chasar LC, Bradley PM, Burns DA, Brigham ME, Smith MJ, Abrahamsen TA. 2011. Spatial patterns of mercury in macroinvertebrates and fishes from streams of two contrasting forested landscapes in the eastern United States. Ecotoxicology 20:1530–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Rosi-Marshall EJ, Tank JL, Royer TV, Whiles MR, Evans-White M, Chambers C, Griffiths NA, Pokelsek J, Stephen ML. 2007. Toxins in transgenic crop byproducts may affect headwater stream ecosystems. Proc Nat Acad Sci USA 104:16204–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Sabourin L, Beck A, Duenk PW, Kleywegt S, Lapen DR, Li HX, Metcalfe CD, Payne M, Topp E. 2009. Runoff of pharmaceuticals and personal care products following application of dewatered municipal biosolids to an agricultural field. Sci Total Environ 407:4596–604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Schindler DW. 1974. Eutrophication and recovery in experimental lakes: implications for lake management. Science 184:897–9.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Schindler DW. 1998. Replication versus realism: the need for ecosystem-scale experiments. Ecosystems 1:323–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Schultz MM, Furlong ET, Kolpin DW, Werner SL, Schoenfuss HL, Barber LB, Blazer VS, Norris DO, Vajda AM. 2010. Antidepressant pharmaceuticals in two US effluent-impacted streams: occurrence and fate in water and sediment, and selective uptake in fish neural tissue. Environ Sci Technol 44:1918–25.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Starry OS, Valett HM, Schreiber ME. 2005. Nitrification rates in a headwater stream: influences of seasonal variation in C and N supply. J North Am Benthol Soc 24:753–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Stewart-Oaten A, Murdock WW, Parker KR. 1986. Environmental impact assessment: “pseudoreplication” in time? Ecology 67:929–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Tank JL, Dodds WK. 2003. Nutrient limitation of epilithic and epixylic biofilms in ten North American streams. Freshw Biol 48:1031–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Tank JL, Bernot MJ, Rosi-Marshall EJ. 2006. Nitrogen limitation and uptake. In: Hauer FR, Lamberti GA, Eds. Methods in stream ecology. London: Academic Press. Google Scholar
  102. Tank JL, Rosi-Marshall EJ, Baker MA, Hall RO. 2008. Are rivers just big streams? Using a novel method to quantify nitrogen demand in a large river. Ecology 89:2935–45.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Tararazako N, Ishibashi H, Teshima K, Kishi K, Arizono K. 2004. Effects of triclosan on various aquatic organisms. Environ Sci 11:133–40.Google Scholar
  104. Thomas SA, Newbold JD, Minshall GW, Georgian T, Monaghan MT, Cushing CE. 2001. Transport and deposition of fine and very-fine organic particles in streams: implications for deposition mechanisms in turbulent environments. Limnol Oceanogr 46:1415–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Underwood AJ. 1992. Beyond BACI: the detection of environmental impacts on populations in the real, but variable, world. J Exp Marine Biol Ecol 161:145–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Vajda AM, Barber LB, Gray JL, Lopez EM, Woodling JD, Norris DO. 2008. Reproductive disruption in fish downstream from an estrogenic wastewater effluent. Environ Sci Technol 42:3407–14.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Vieno NM, Tuhkanen T, Kronberg L. 2005. Seasonal variation in the occurrence of pharmaceuticals in effluents from a sewage treatment plant and in the recipient water. Environ Sci Technol 39:8220–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Von Sperling M, Freire VH, Chernicharo CAD. 2001. Performance evaluation of a UASB - activated sludge system treating municipal wastewater. Water Sci Technol 43:323–8.Google Scholar
  109. Walters DM, Fritz KM, Otter RR. 2008. The dark side of subsidies: adult stream insects export organic contaminants to riparian predators. Ecol Appl 18:1835–41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Walters E, McClellan K, Halden RU. 2010. Occurrence and loss over three years of 72 pharmaceuticals and personal care products from biosolids-soil mixtures in outdoor mesocosms. Water Res 44:6011–20.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Webster JR, Patten BC. 1979. Effects of watershed perturbation on stream potassium and calcium dynamics. Ecol Monogr 49:51–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Weyrauch P, Matzinger A, Pawlowsky-Reusing E, Plume S, von Seggern D, Heinzmann B, Schroeder K, Rouault P. 2010. Contribution of combined sewer overflows to trace contaminant loads in urban streams. Water Res 44:4451–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Wilson BA, Smith VH, Denoyelles F, Larive CK. 2003. Effects of three pharmaceutical and personal care products on natural freshwater algal assemblages. Environ Sci Technol 37:1713–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Writer JH, Ryan JN, Barber LB. 2011. Role of biofilms in sorptive removal of steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol compounds from streams. Environ Sci Technol 45:7275–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Cary Institute of Ecosystem StudiesMillbrookUSA
  2. 2.School of Public & Environmental Affairs, Indiana University-BloomingtonBloomingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations