Ecosystems

, Volume 15, Issue 4, pp 616–623

Spatial Patterns of Soil Surface C Flux in Experimental Canopy Gaps

  • Jason D. Schatz
  • Jodi A. Forrester
  • David J. Mladenoff
Article

Abstract

To explore within-gap spatial patterns of soil surface CO2 flux, we measured instantaneous soil surface CO2 flux, soil surface temperature, and soil moisture in north–south transects across canopy gaps and in adjacent contiguous forest from April to November 2010 in a second-growth northern hardwood forest in Wisconsin, USA. Throughout the growing season, soil surface CO2 flux was higher in the northern 1/3 and northern edge of gaps compared to the central and southern portions. These patterns were driven primarily by within-gap variation in soil temperature, which was itself driven by within-gap patterns of insolation. Most locations in the northern 1/3 and northern edge of gaps had significantly higher modeled total growing season C flux (mean 725 g C m−2) compared to the contiguous forest (mean 706 g C m−2), whereas C flux in the central and southern portions of gaps (mean 555 g C m−2) was significantly lower than both the contiguous forest and the northern portions of gaps.

Keywords

Canopy gap C flux Gap microclimate Respiration Soil temperature Soil flux Northern hardwood forest 

Supplementary material

10021_2012_9535_MOESM1_ESM.doc (32 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 32 kb)

References

  1. Bauhus J. 1996. C and N mineralization in an acid forest soil along a gap-stand gradient. Soil Biol Biochem 28(7):923–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bauhus J, Vor T, Bartsch N, Cowling A. 2004. The effects of gaps and liming on forest floor decomposition and soil C and N dynamics in a Fagus sylvatica forest. Can J For Res 34:509–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bond-Lamberty B, Wang C, Gower ST. 2004. Contribution of root respiration to soil surface CO2 flux in a boreal black spruce chronosequence. Tree Phys 24:1387–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Boone RD, Nadelhoffer KJ, Canary JD, Kaye JP. 1998. Roots exert strong influence on the temperature sensitivity of soil respiration. Nature 396:570–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brumme R. 1995. Mechanisms of carbon and nutrient release and retention in beech forest gaps III. Environmental regulation of soil respiration and nitrous oxide emissions along a microclimatic gradient. Plant Soil 168–169:593–600.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Buchmann N. 2000. Biotic and abiotic factors controlling soil respiration rates in Picea abies stands. Soil Biol Biochem 32:1625–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Canham CD, Denslow JS, Platt WJ, Runkle JR, Spies TA, White PS. 1990. Light regimes beneath closed canopies and tree-fall gaps in temperate and tropical forests. Can J For Res 20:620–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dahir SE, Lorimer CG. 1996. Variation in canopy gap formation among developmental stages of northern hardwood stands. Can J For Res 26:1875–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dyer JH, Gower ST, Forrester JA, Lorimer CG, Mladenoff DJ, Burton JI. 2010. Effects of selective tree harvests on aboveground biomass and net primary productivity of a second-growth northern hardwood forest. Can J For Res 40:2360–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Edwards NT, Ross-Todd BM. 1983. Soil carbon dynamics in a mixed deciduous forest following clearcutting with and without residual removal. Soil Sci Soc Am J 47:1014–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Frelich LE, Lorimer CG. 1991. Natural disturbance regimes in hemlock-hardwood forests of the upper Great Lakes region. Ecol Monogr 61:145–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gendreau-Berthiaume B, Kneeshaw D. 2009. Influence of gap size and position within gaps on light levels. Int J For Res. doi:10.1155/2009/581412.
  13. Goodburn JM, Lorimer CG. 1998. Cavity trees and coarse woody debris in old-growth and managed northern hardwood forests in Wisconsin and Michigan. Can J For Res 28(3):427–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gower ST, Pongracic S, Landsberg JJ. 1996. A global trend in belowground carbon allocation: can we use the relationship at smaller scales? Ecology 77:1750–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gray AN, Spies TA, Easter MJ. 2002. Microclimatic and soil moisture responses to gap formation in coastal Douglas-fir forests. Can J For Res 32:322–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Keller JA, Hix DM. 1999. Canopy gap fraction and origin in second-growth forests in Washington County, Ohio. Castanea 64(3):252–8.Google Scholar
  17. Kneeshaw DD, Bergeron Y. 1998. Canopy gap characteristics and tree replacement in the southeastern boreal forest. Ecology 79(3):783–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lloyd J, Taylor JA. 1994. On the temperature dependence of soil respiration. Funct Ecol 8(3):315–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Londo AJ, Messina MG, Schoenholtz SH. 1999. Forest harvesting effects on soil temperature, moisture, and respiration in a bottomland hardwood forest. Soil Sci Soc Am J 63:637–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Milakovsky B, Frey BR, Ashton MS, Larson BC, Schmitz OJ. 2011. Influences of gap position, vegetation management and herbivore control on survival and growth of white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss) seedlings. For Ecol Manag 261:440–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Peng Y, Thomas SC. 2006. Soil CO2 efflux in uneven-aged managed forests: temporal pattern following harvest and effects of edaphic heterogeneity. Plant Soil 289:253–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Qi Y, Xu M, Wu J. 2002. Temperature sensitivity of soil respiration and its effects on ecosystem carbon budget: nonlinearity begets surprises. Ecol Model 153:131–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Raich JW, Schlesinger WH. 1992. The global carbon dioxide flux in soil respiration and its relationship to vegetation and climate. Tellus 44B:81–99.Google Scholar
  24. Raich JW, Tufekcioglu A. 2000. Vegetation and soil respiration: correlations and controls. Biogeochemistry 48(1):71–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Runkle JR. 1982. Patterns of disturbance in some old-growth mesic forests of eastern North America. Ecology 63:1533–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Scharenbroch BC, Bockheim JG. 2008. Gaps and soil C dynamics in old growth northern hardwood-hemlock forests. Ecosystems 11:426–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Schilling EB, Lockaby BG, Rummer R. 1999. Belowground nutrient dynamics following three harvest intensities on the Pearl River floodplain, Mississippi. Soil Sci Soc Am J 63(6):1856–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Schulte LA, Mladenoff DJ, Nordheim EV. 2002. Quantitative classification of a historic northern Wisconsin landscape: mapping forests at regional scales. Can J For Res 32:1616–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Stoffel JL, Gower ST, Forrester JA, Mladenoff DJ. 2010. Effects of winter selective harvest on soil microclimate and surface CO2 flux of a northern hardwood forest. For Ecol Manag 259:257–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wright EF, Coates KD, Bartemucci P. 1998. Regeneration from seed of six tree species in the interior cedar-hemlock forests of British Columbia as affected by substrate and canopy gap position. Can J For Res 28:1352–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jason D. Schatz
    • 1
  • Jodi A. Forrester
    • 1
  • David J. Mladenoff
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Forest and Wildlife EcologyUniversity of WisconsinMadisonUSA

Personalised recommendations