Advertisement

Ecosystems

, Volume 14, Issue 4, pp 672–682 | Cite as

Repercussions of Simulated Climate Change on the Diversity of Woody-Recruit Bank in a Mediterranean-type Ecosystem

  • Luis MatíasEmail author
  • Regino Zamora
  • Jorge Castro
Article

Abstract

Extreme climatic events have the potential to affect plant communities around the world, and especially in the Mediterranean basin, where the frequency of milder and drier summers is expected to be altered under a global-change scenario. We experimentally investigated the effect of three contrasting climatic scenarios on the diversity and abundance of the natural woody-recruit bank among three characteristic habitats in a Mediterranean-type ecosystem: forest, shrubland, and bare soil. The climatic scenarios were dry summers (30% summer rainfall reduction), wet summers (simulating summer storms), and current climatic conditions (control). Seedling emergence and survival after the first summer was recorded during 4 consecutive years. The wet summer boosted abundance and diversity at emergence and summer survival, rendering the highest Shannon H′ index. By contrast, the dry summer had no effect on emergence, although survival tended to decline. Nonetheless, the habitat had a key role, bare soil showing almost null recruitment whatever the climatic scenario, and forest keeping the highest diversity in all of them. Our results show that recruit-bank density and diversity depends heavily on extreme climatic events. Community dynamics will depend not only on increased drought but also on the balance between dry and wet years.

Key words

abundance climatic variability diversity drought extreme events recruitment 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the Consejería de Medio Ambiente (Andalusian Government) and the Direction of the Sierra Nevada National Park for facilities and support to carry out the experiment. We also thank Nacho Villegas for invaluable field assistance, and David Nesbitt for English checking. This study was supported by the coordinated Spanish MEC Project DINAMED (CGL2005-05830-C03) and GESBOME (P06-RNM-1890) from the Excellence Research Programme of the Andalusian Government, and by a grant FPI-MEC (BES-2006-13562) to L.M. This research is part of the GLOBIMED network on forest research (www.globimed.net/).

Supplementary material

10021_2011_9437_MOESM1_ESM.doc (51 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 51 kb)

References

  1. Agrawal AA, Ackerly DD, Adler F, Arnold AE, Caceres C, Doak DF, Post E, Hudson PJ, Maron J, Mooney KA, Power M, Schemske D, Stachowicz J, Strauss S, Turner MG, Werner E. 2007. Filling key gaps in population and community ecology. Frontiers Ecol Environ 5:145–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Allen CD, Breshears DP. 1998. Drought-induced shift of a forest-woodland ecotone: rapid landscape response to climate variation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:14839–42.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Allen CD, Macalady AK, Chenchouni H, Bachelet D, McDowell N, Vennetier M, Kitzberger T, Rigling A, Breshears DD, Hogg EH, Gonzalez P, Fensham R, Zhang Z, Castro J, Demidova N, Lim JH, Allard G, Running SW, Semerci A, Cobb N. 2010. A global overview of drought and heat-induced tree mortality reveals emerging climate change risks for forests. For Ecol Manag 259:660–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bey A. 2003. Evapoclimatonomy modelling of four restoration stages following Krakatau’s 1883 destruction. Ecol Model 169:327–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bigler C, Bräker OU, Bugmann H, Dobbertin M, Rigling A. 2006. Drought as an inciting mortality factor in Scots pine stands of the Valais, Switzerland. Ecosystems 9:330–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Blanca G, Cueto M, Martínez-Lirola MJ, Molero-Mesa J. 1998. Threatened vascular flora of Sierra Nevada (southern Spain). Biol Conserv 85:269–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bréda N, Huc R, Granier A, Dreyer E. 2006. Temperate forest trees and stands under severe drought: a review of ecophysiological responses, adaptation processes and long-term consequences. Ann For Sci 63:625–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Breshears DP, Cobbs NS, Rich PM, Priece KP, Allen CD, Balice RG, Romme WH, Kastens JH, Floyd ML, Belnap J, Anderson JJ, Myers OB, Meyer CW. 2005. Regional vegetation die-off in response to global-change-type drought. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:15144–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Castro J, Zamora R, Hódar JA, Gómez JM. 2005. Alleviation of summer drought boosts establishment success of Pinus sylvestris in a Mediterranean mountain: an experimental approach. Plant Ecol 181:191–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chapin FSIII, Sala OE, Huber-Sannwald E. 2001. Global biodiversity in a changing environment. New York: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Christensen JH, Hewitson B, Busuioc A, Chen A, Gao X, Held R, Jones R, Kolli RK, Kwon WK, Laprise R, Magana Rueda V, Mearns L, Menendez CG, Räisänen J, Rinke A, Sarr A, Whetton P, Arritt R, Benestad R, Beniston M, Bromwich D, Caya D, Comiso J, de Elia R, Dethloff K. 2007. Regional climate projections, climate change: the physical science basis. Contribution of working group I to the fourth assessment report of the IPCC. Cambridge, UK: University Press. pp 847–943.Google Scholar
  12. Colwell RK. 2005. EstimateS: statistical estimation of species richness and shared species from samples. Version 7.5. Persistent URL purl.oclc.org/estimates.
  13. Eriksson O, Fröborg H. 1996. “Windows of opportunity” for recruitment in long lived clonal plants: experimental studies of seedling establishment in Vaccinum shrubs. Can J Bot 74:1369–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Esteban-Parra MJ, Rodrigo FS, Castro-Diez Y. 1998. Spatial and temporal patterns of precipitation in Spain for the period 1880–1992. Int J Climatol 18:1557–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. García D, Zamora R, Hódar JA, Gómez JM. 1999. Age structure of Juniperus communis L. in the Iberian peninsula: conservation of remnant populations in Mediterranean mountains. Biol Conserv 87:215–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Giorgi F, Lionello P. 2008. Climate change projections for the Mediterranean region. Glob Planet Change 63:90–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gómez JM. 2004. Bigger is not always better: conflicting selective pressures on seed size on Quercus ilex. Evolution 58:71–80.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Gómez-Aparicio L, Zamora R, Gómez JM. 2005. Analysis of the regeneration status of the endangered Acer opalus subsp. granatense throughout its geographical distribution in the Iberian Peninsula. Biol Conserv 121:195–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gómez-Aparicio L, Pérez-Ramos IM, Mendoza I, Matías L, Quero JL, Castro J, Zamora R, Marañón T. 2008. Oak seedling survival and growth along resource gradients in Mediterranean forests: implications for regeneration under current and future environmental scenarios. Oikos 117:1683–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hampe A, Arroyo J. 2002. Recruitment and regeneration in populations of an endangered South Iberian Tertiary relict tree. Biol Conserv 107:236–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hampe A, Petit RJ. 2005. Conserving biodiversity under climate change: the rear edge matters. Ecol Lett 8:461–7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Henderson-Sellers A, Robinson PJ. 1991. Contemporary climatology. New York, USA: Longman Scientific & Technical.Google Scholar
  23. Holmgren M, Scheffer M. 2001. El Niño as a window of opportunity for the restoration of degraded arid ecosystems. Ecosystems 4:151–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Holmgren M, Stapp P, Dickman CR, Gracia C, Graham S, Gutiérrez JR, Hice C, Jaksic F, Kelt DA, Letnic M, Lima M, López BC, Meserve PL, Milstead WB, Polis GA, Previtali MA, Richter M, Sabaté S, Squeo FA. 2006a. Extreme climatic events shape arid and semiarid ecosystems. Frontiers Ecol Environ 4:87–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Holmgren M, López BC, Gutiérrez JR, Squeo FA. 2006b. Herbivory and plant growth determine the success of El Niño Southern Oscillation-driven tree establishment in semiarid South America. Glob Change Biol 12:2263–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Houghton JT, Ding Y, Griggs DJ, Noguer M, van der Linden PJ, Xiaosu D. 2001. Climate change 2001: the scientific basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Third Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  27. IPCC. 2007. Climate change, 2007. The physical science basis: working group I contribution to the fourth assessment report of the IPCC. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Jentsch A, Beierkuhnlein C. 2008. Research frontiers in climate change: Effects of extreme meteorological events on ecosystems. Geoscience 340:621–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Jump A, Hunt JM, Peñuelas J. 2007. Climate relationships of growth and establishment across the altitudinal range of Fagus sylvatica in the Montseny Mountains, NE Spain. Ecoscience 14:507–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kalbfleisch JD, Prentice RL. 1980. The statistical analysis of failure time data. New York: Willey.Google Scholar
  31. Kitzberger T, Steinaker DF, Veblen TT. 2000. Effects of climatic variability on facilitation of tree establishment in Northern Patagonia. Ecology 81:1914–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kullman L. 2002. Rapid recent range-margin rise of tree and shrub species in the Swedish Scandes. J Ecol 90:68–77.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lázaro A, Traveset A, Castillo A. 2006. Spatial concordance at a regional scale in the regeneration process of a circum-Mediterranean relict (Buxus balearica): connecting seed dispersal to seedling establishment. Ecography 29:683–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. League K, Veblen T. 2006. Climatic variability and episodic Pinus ponderosa establishment along the forest-grassland ecotones of Colorado. For Ecol Manag 228:98–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lewis-Smith RI. 1994. Vascular plants as bioindicators of regional warming in Antarctica. Oecologia 99:322–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lloret F, Peñuelas J, Estiarte M. 2004. Experimental evidence of reduced diversity of seedlings due to climate modification in a Mediterranean-type community. Glob Change Biol 10:248–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lloret F, Peñuelas J, Prieto P, Llorens L, Estiarte M. 2009. Plant community changes induced by experimental climate change: seedling and adult species composition. Perspect Plant Ecol Evol Syst 11:53–63.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Magurran AE. 2004. Measuring biological diversity. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
  39. Matías L, Mendoza I, Zamora R. 2009. Consistent pattern of habitat and species selection by post-dispersal seed predators in a Mediterranean mosaic landscape. Plant Ecol 203:137–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Matías L, Zamora R, Mendoza I, Hódar JA. 2010. Seed dispersal pattern by large frugivorous mammals in a degraded mosaic landscape. Restor Ecol 18:619–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Matías L, Castro J, Zamora R. 2011. Soil-nutrient availability under a global-change scenario in a Mediterranean mountain ecosystem. Glob Change Biol 17:1646–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mendoza I, Gómez-Aparicio L, Zamora R, Matías L. 2009a. Recruitment limitation of forest communities in a degraded Mediterranean landscape. J Veg Sci 20:367–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mendoza I, Zamora R, Castro J. 2009b. A seeding experiment for testing tree-community recruitment under variable environments: implication for forest regeneration and conservation in Mediterranean habitats. Biol Conserv 142:1491–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Ogaya R, Peñuelas J, Martínez-Vilalta J, Manguirón M. 2003. Effect of drought on diameter increment of Quercus ilex, Phylirea latifoia and Arbutus unedo in a holm oak forest of NE Spain. For Ecol Manag 180:175–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pyke CR, Andelman SJ. 2007. Land use and land cover tools for climate adaptation. Clim Change 80:239–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Rodrigo FS. 2002. Changes in climate vatiability and seasonal rainfall extremes: a case study from San Fernando (Spain), 1821–2000. Theor Appl Clim 72:193–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Squeo FA, Holmgren M, Jiménez M, Albán L, Reyes J, Gutiérrez JR. 2007. Tree establishment along an ENSO experimental gradient in the Atacama desert. J Veg Sci 18:195–202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Sternberg M, Brown VK, Masters GJ, Clarke IP. 1999. Plant community dynamics in a calcareous grassland under climate change manipulations. Plant Ecol 143:29–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Thomas CD, Cameron A, Green RE, Bakkenes M, Beaumont LJ, Collingham YC, Erasmus BFN, Ferreira de Siquiera M, Grainger A, Hannah L, Huges L, Huntley B, van Jaarsveld AS, Midgley GF, Miles L, Ortega-Huerta MA, Peterson AT, Phillips OL, Williamns SE. 2004. Extinction risk from climate change. Nature 427:145–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Thuiller W, Lavorel S, Araújo M, Sykes MT, Prentice C. 2005. Climate change threats to plant diversity in Europe. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:8245–50.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tilman D. 1998. Species composition, species diversity, and ecosystem processes: understanding the impacts of global change. In: Pace ML, Groffman PM, Eds. Success, limitations, and frontiers in ecosystems science. New York: Springer. p 452–72.Google Scholar
  52. Traveset A, Gulias J, Riera N, Mus M. 2003. Transition probabilities from pollination to establishment in a rare dioecious shrub species (Rhamnus ludovici-salvatoris) in two habitats. J Ecol 91:427–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Urbieta IR, Pérez-Ramos IM, Zavala MA, Marañón T, Kobe RK. 2008. Soil water content and emergence time control seedling establishment in three co-occurring Mediterranean oak species. Can J For Res 38:2382–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Valladares F, Sánchez-Gómez D. 2006. Ecophysiological traits associated with drought in Mediterranean tree seedlings: individual responses versus interspecific trends in eleven species. Plant Biol 8:688–97.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Wang T, Zhang QB, Ma KP. 2006. Treeline dynamics in relation to climate variability in the central Tianshan Mountains. Glob Ecol Biogeogr 15:406–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Weltzin JF, McPherson GR. 2000. Implications of precipitation redistribution for shifts in temperate savanna ecotones. Ecology 81:3464–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Yahdjian L, Sala O. 2002. A rainout shelter design for intercepting different amounts of rainfall. Oecologia 133:95–101.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Zamora R, Hódar JA, Matías L, Mendoza I. 2010. Positive adjacency effects mediated by seed disperser birds in pine plantations. Ecol Appl 20:1053–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Grupo de Ecología Terrestre, Departamento de Ecología, Facultad de CienciasUniversidad de GranadaGranadaSpain

Personalised recommendations